I was born at York,

in the year 1632,

of a reputable family.

My father was a native of Bremen,

who by merchandizing at Hull for some time,

gained a very plentiful fortune.

He married my mother at York,

who received her first breath in that country: and as her maiden name was Robinson,

I was called -Robinson Kreutznaer-: which not being easily pronounced in the English tongue,

we are commonly known by the name of Crusoe.

I was the youngest of three brothers.

The eldest was a lieutenant colonel in Lochart's regiment,

but slain by the Spaniards: what became of the other,

I could never learn.

No charge or pains were wanting in my education.

--My father designed me for the law;

yet nothing would serve me but I must go to sea,

both against the will of my father,

the tears of my mother,

and the entreaties of friends.

One morning my father expostulated very warmly with me: What reason,

says he,

have you to leave your native country,

where there must be a more certain prospect of content and happiness,

to enter into a wandering condition of uneasiness and uncertainty?

He recommended to me Augur's wish,

"Neither to desire poverty nor riches:" that a middle state of life was the most happy,

and that the high towering thoughts of raising our condition by wandering abroad,

were surrounded with misery and danger,

and often ended with confusion and disappointment.

I entreat you,


I command you,

(says he) to desist from these intentions.

Consider your elder brother,

who laid down his life for his honour,

or rather lost it for his disobedience to my will.

If you will go (added he) my prayers shall however be offered for your preservation;

but a time may come,




or forsaken,

you may wish you had taken your poor despised father's counsel.

--He pronounced these words with such a moving and paternal eloquence,

while floods of tears ran down his aged cheeks,

that it seemed to stem the torrent of my resolutions.

But this soon wore,


and a little after I informed my mother,

that I could not settle to any business,

my resolutions were so strong to see the world;

and begged she would gain my father's consent only to go one voyage;


if I did not prove prosperous,

I would never attempt a second.

But my desire was as vain as my folly in making.

My mother passionately expressed her dislike of this,


telling me,

"That as she saw I was bent upon my own destruction,

contrary to their will and my duty,

she would say no more;

but leave me to do whatever I pleased."

I was then,

I think,

nineteen years old,

when one time being Hull;

I met a school-fellow of mine,

going along with his father,

who was master of a ship,

to London;

and acquainted him with my wandering desires;

he assured me of a free passage,

and a plentiful share of what was necessary.


without imploring a blessing,

or taking farewell of my parents,

I took shipping on the first of September 1651.

We set sail soon after,

and our ship had scarce left the Humber astern,

when there arose so violent a storm,


being extremely sea-sick,

I concluded the judgment of God deservedly followed me for my disobedience to my dear parents.

It was then I called to mind,

the good advice of my father;

how easy and comfortable was a middle state of life;

and I firmly resolved,

if it pleased God to set me on dry land once more,

I would return to my parents,

implore their forgiveness,

and bid a final adieu to my wandering inclinations.

Such were my thoughts while the storm continued: but these good resolutions decreased with the danger;

more especially when my companion came to me,

clapping me on the shoulder:



said he,

"sure you was not frightened last night with scarce a capful of wind?"

--"And do you" cried I,

"call such a violent storm a capful of wind?"

--"A storm,

you fool you,"

said he,

"this is nothing;

a good ship and sea-room always baffles such a foolish squall of wind as that: But you're a fresh water sailor: Come boy,

turn out,

see what fine weather we have now,

and a good bowl of punch will drown all your past sorrows."

In short,

the punch was made,

I was drunk and in one night's time drowned both my repentance and my good resolutions,

forgetting entirely the vows and promises I made in my distress: and whenever any reflections would return on me,

what by company,

and what by drinking,

I soon mastered those fits,

as I deridingly called them.

But this only made way for another trial,

whereby I could not but see how much I was beholden to kind Providence.

Upon the sixth day we came to an anchor in Harwich road,

where we lay wind bound with some Newcastle ships;

and there being good anchorage,

and our cables found,

the seamen forgot their late toil and danger,

and spent the time as merry as if they had been on shore.

But on the eight day there arose a brisk gale of wind,

which prevented our tiding it up the river;

and still increasing,

our ship rode forecastle in,

and shipped several large seas.

It was not long before horror seized the seamen themselves,

and I heard the master express this melancholy ejaculation,

"Lord have mercy upon us,

we shall be all,

lost and undone!"

For my part,

sick unto death,

I kept my cabin till the universal and terribly dreadful apprehensions of our speedy fate made me get upon deck;

and there I was affrighted indeed.

The sea went mountains high: I could see nothing but distress around us;

two ships had cut their masts on board,

and another was foundered;

two more that had lost their anchors,

were forced out to the mercy of the ocean;

and to save our lives we were forced to cut our foremast and mainmast quite away.

Who is their so ignorant as not to judge of my dreadful condition?

I was but a fresh-water sailor and therefore it seemed more terrible.

Our ship was very good,

but over-loaded;

which made the sailors often cry out,

"She would founder!"

Words I then was ignorant of.

All this while the storm continuing,

and rather increasing,

the master and the most sober part of his men went to prayers,

expecting death every moment.

In the middle of the night one cried out,

"We had sprung a leak;"


"That there was four feet water in the hold."

I was just ready to expire with fear,

when immediately all hands were called to the pump;

and the men forced me also in that extremity to share with them in their labour.

While thus employed,

the master espying some light colliers,

fired a gun as a signal of distress;

and I,

not understanding what it meant,

and thinking that either the ship broke,

or some dreadful thing happened,

fell into a swoon.

Even in that common condition of woe,

nobody minded me,

excepting to thrust me aside with their feet,

thinking me dead,

and it was a great while before I recovered.

Happy it was for us,


upon the signal given,

they ventured out their boats to save our lives.

All our pumping had been in vain,

and vain had all our attempts been,

had they not come to our ship's side,

and our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it,

which after great labour they got hold of,

and we hauling them up to us got into their boat,

and left our ship which we perceived sink within less than a quarter of an hour;

and thus I learned what was meant by -foundering at sea.- And now the men incessantly laboured to recover their,

own ship;

but the sea ran so high,

and the wind blew so hard,

that they thought it convenient to hale within shore;


with great difficulty and danger,

at last we happily effected landing at a place called -Cromer-,

not far from Winterton lighthouse;

from whence we all walked to Yarmouth,


as objects of pity,

many good people furnished us with necessaries to carry us either to Hull or London.


after all this,

like the prodigal son,

I did not return to my father;

who hearing of the ship's calamity,

for a long time thought me entombed in the deep.

No doubt but I should have -shared on his fatted calf-,

as the scripture expresseth it;

but my ill fate still pusheth me on,

in spite of the powerful convictions of reason and conscience.

When we had been at Yarmouth three days,

I met my old companion,

who had given me the invitation to go on board along with his father.

His behaviour and speech were altered,

and in a melancholy manner asked me how I did,

telling his father who I was,

& how I had made this voyage only for a trial to proceed further abroad.

Upon which the old gentleman turning to me gravely,


"Young man,

you ought never to go to sea any more,

but to take this for a certain sign that you never will prosper in a sea-faring condition."

"Sir" answered I,

"will you take the same resolution?"

"It is a different case,"

said he,

"it is my calling,

and consequently my duty;

but as you have made this voyage for a trial,

you see what ill success heaven has set before your eyes;

and perhaps our miseries have been on your account,

like -Jonah- in the ship of -Tarshish-.

But pray what are you,

and on what account did you go to sea?"

Upon which I very freely declared my whole story: at the end of which he made this exclamation:

"Ye sacred powers: what had I committed,

that such a wretch should enter into my ship to heap upon me such a deluge of miseries!"

But soon recollecting his passion,

"Young man" said he,

"if you do not go back,

depend upon it,

wherever you go,

you will meet with disasters and disappointments till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."

And so we parted.

I thought at first to return home;

but shame opposed that good motion,

as thinking I should be laughed at by my neighbours and acquaintance.

So strange is the nature of youth,

who are not ashamed to sin,

but yet ashamed to repent;

and so far from being ashamed of those actions for which they may be acounted fools,

they think it folly to return to their duty,

which is the principal mark of wisdom.

In short I travelled up to London,

resolving upon a voyage,

and a voyage I soon heard of,

by my acquaintance with a captain who took a fancy to me,

to go to the coast of Guinea.

Having some money,

and appearing like a gentleman,

I went on board,

not as a common sailor or foremast man;


the commander agreed I should go that voyage with him without any expence;

that I should be his messmate and companion,

and I was very welcome to carry any thing with me,

and make the best merchandise I could.

I blessed my happy fortune,

and humbly thanked my captain for this offer;

and acquainting my friends in Yorkshire,

forty pounds were sent me,

the greatest part of which my dear father and mother contributed to,

with which I bought toys and trifles,

as the captain directed me.

My captain also taught me navigation,

how to keep an account of the ship's course,

take an observation,

and led me into the knowledge of several useful branches of the mathematics.

And indeed this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant;

for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure which produced,

at my return to London,

almost three hundred pounds.

But in this voyage I was extremely sick,

being thrown into a violent calenture through the excessive heat,

trading upon the coast from the latitude of fifteen degrees north,

even to the line itself.

But alas!

my dear friend the captain soon departed this life after his arrival.

This was a sensible grief to me;

yet I resolved to go another with his mate,

who had now got command of the ship.

This proved a very unsuccessful one;

for though I did not carry quite a hundred pounds of my late acquired wealth,

(so that I had two hundred pounds left,

which I reposed with the captain's widow,

who was an honest gentlewoman) yet my misfortunes in this unhappy voyage were very great.

For our ship sailing towards the Canary islands,

we were chased by a Salee rover;

and in spite of all the haste we could make by crowding as much canvas as our yards could spread,

or our masts carry,

the pirate gained upon us,

to that we prepared ourselves to fight.

They had eighteen guns,

and we had but twelve.

About three in the afternoon there was a desperate engagement,

wherein many were killed and wounded on both sides;

but finding ourselves overpowered with numbers,

our ship disabled and ourselves too impotent to have the least hopes of success,

we were forced to surrender;

and accordingly were all carried prisoners into the port of Salee.

Our men were sent to the Emperor's court to be sold there,

but the pirate captain taking notice of me,

kept me to be his own slave.

In this condition,

I thought myself the most miserable creature on earth,

and the prophecy of my father came afresh into my thoughts.


my condition was better than I thought it to be,

as will soon appear.

Some hopes indeed I had that my new patron would go to sea again,

where he might be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man of war,

and then I should be set at liberty.

But in this I was mistaken;

for he never took me with him,

but left me to look after his little garden,

and do the drudgery of his house,

and when he returned from sea,

would make,

me lie in the cabin,

and look after the ship.

I had no one that I could communicate my thoughts to,

which were continually meditating my escape;

no Englishman,


or Scotchman here but myself;

and for two years I could see nothing practicable,

but only pleased myself with the imagination.

After some length of time,

my patron,

as I found,


so poor that he could not fit out his ship as usual;

and then he used constantly,

once or twice a week,

if the weather was fair,

to go out a fishing,

taking me and a young Moresco Boy to row the boat;

and to much pleased was he with me for my dexterity in catching the fish,

that he would often send me with a Moor,

who was one of his kinsemen,

and the Moresco youth,

to catch a dish of fish for him.

One morning,

as we were at the sport,

there arose such a thick fog that we lost sight of the shore;

and rowing we knew not which way,

we laboured all the night,

and in the morning found ourselves in the ocean,

two leagues from land.


we attained there at length,

and made the greater haste,

because our stomachs were exceedingly sharp and hungry.

In order to prevent such disasters for the future,

my patron ordered a carpenter to build a little state room or cabin in the middle of the long-boat,

with a place behind it to steer and hale home the main-sheet,

with other conveniences to keep him from the weather,

as also lockers to put in all manner of provisions,

with a handsome shoulder of mutton sail,

gibing over the cabin.

In this he frequently took us out a fishing: and one time inviting two or three persons of distinction to go with him,

made provision extraordinary,

providing also three fusees with powder and shot,

that they might have some sport at fowling along the sea-coast.

The next morning the boat was made clean,

her ancient and pendants on,

and every thing ready: but their minds altering,

my patron ordered us to go a fishing,

for that his guests would certainly sup with him that night.

And now I began to think of my deliverance indeed.

In order to this I persuaded to Moor to get some provisions on board,

as not daring to meddle with our patron's: and he taking my advice,

we stored ourselves with rusk biscuit,

and three jars of water.


I privately conveyed into the boat a bottle or brandy,

some twine,


a hammer,


and a saw;


in particular,

some bees wax,

which was a great comfort to me,

and served to make candles.

I then persuaded Muley (for so was the Moor called) to procure some powder and shot,

pretending to kill sea curlues,

which he innocently and readily agreed to.

In short,

being provided with all things necessary,

we sailed out,

resolving for my own part to make my escape,

though it should cost me my life.

When we had passed the castle,

we fell a fishing;

but though I knew there was a bite,

I dissembled the matter,

in order to put out further to sea.

Accordingly we ran a league further;

when giving the boy the helm,

and pretending to stoop for something,

I seized Muley by surprise and threw him overboard.

As he was an excellent swimmer,

he soon arose and made towards the boat;

upon which I took out a fusee,

and presented at him:

"Muley" said I,

"I never yet designed to do you any harm,

and seek nothing now but my redemption.

I know you are able enough to swim to shore,

and save your life: but if you are resolved to follow me to the endangering of mine,

the very moment you proceed,

I will shoot you through the head."

The harmless creature at these words,

turned himself from me,

and I make no doubt got safe to land.

Them turning to the boy Xury,

I perceived he trembled at the action: but I put him out of all fear,

telling him,

that if he would be true and faithful to me,

I would do well by him.

"And therefore,"

said I,

"you must stroke your face to be faithful: and,

as the Turks have learned you,

swear by Mahomet,

and the beard of your father,

or else I will throw you into the sea also."

So innocent did the child then look,

and with such an obliging smile consented,

that I readily believed him,

and from that day forward began to love him entirely.

We then pursued our voyage: and least they should think me gone to the Straits' mouth,

I kept to the southward to the truly Barbarian coast;

but in the dusk of the evening,

I changed my course,

and steering directly S. and by E. that I might keep near the shore: and,

having a fresh gale of wind,

with a pleasant smooth sea,

by three o'clock next day I was one hundred and fifty miles beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions.

Yet still having the dreadful apprehensions of being retaken,

I continued sailing for five days successively,

till such time as the wind shifting to the southward,

made me conclude,

that if any vessel was in the chase of me,

they would proceed no farther.

After so much fatigue and thought,

I anchored at the mouth of a little river,

I knew not what or where: neither did I then see,

any people.

What I principally wanted was fresh water;

and I was resolved about dusk to swim ashore.

But no sooner did the gloomy clouds of night begin to succeed the declining day,

when we heard such barking,


and howling of wild creatures,

that one might have thought the very strongest monsters of nature,

or infernal spirits had their residence there.

Poor Xury,

almost dead with fear,

entreated me not to go on shore that night.

"Supposing I don't,


said I,

"and in the morning we should see men who are worse than those we fear,

what then?"

"O den we may give dem de shoot gun,"

replied Xury,


"and de gun make dem all run away."

The wit and broken English which the boy had learned among the captives of our nation,

pleased me entirely: and,

to add to his cheerfulness I gave him a dram of the bottle: we could get but little sleep all the night for those terrible howlings they made;



we were both very much affrighted,


by the rollings of the water,

and other tokens,

we justly concluded one of these monsters made towards our boat.

I could not see till it came within two oars length,

when taking my fusee,

I let fly at him.

Whether I hit him or no,

I cannot tell;

but he made towards the shore,

and the noise of my gun increased the stupendious noise of the monsters.

The next morning I was resolved to go on shore to get fresh water,

and venture my life among the beasts or savages should either attack me.

Xury said,

he would take one of the jars and bring me some.

I asked him why he would go and not I?

The poor boy answered,

"If wild mans come they eat me,

you go away."

A mind scarcely now to be imitated,

so contrary to self-preservation,

the most powerful law of Nature.

This indeed increased my affection to the child.


dear Xury,"

said I,

we will both go ashore,

both kill wild mans,

and they "shall eat neither of us."

So giving Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat,

and a dram,

we waded ashore,

carrying nothing with us but our arms,

and two jars for water.

I did not go out of sight of the boat,

as dreading the savages coming down the river in their canoes;

but the boy seeing a low descent or vale about a mile in the country,

he wandered to it: and then running back to me with great precipitation,

I thought he was pursued by some savage or wild beast;

upon which I approached,

resolving to perish or protect him from danger.

As he came nearer to me,

I saw something hanging over his shoulders,

which was a creature he had shot like a hare,

but different in colour,

and longer legs;


we were glad of it,

for it proved wholesome,

and nourishing meat: but what added to our joy was,

my boy assured me there was plenty of water,

and that he -see no wild mans.

-And greater still was our comfort when we found fresh water in the creek where we were when the tide was out,

without going so far up into the country.

In this place I began to consider that the Canary and Cape de Verde islands lay not for off: but having no instrument,

I knew not what latitude,

or when to stand off to sea for them;

yet my hopes were,

I should meet some of the English trading vessels,

who would relieve and take us in.

The place I was in was no doubt that wild country,

inhabited only by a few,

that lies between the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the Negroes.

It is filled with wild beasts and the Moors use it for hunting chiefly.

--From this place I thought I saw the top of the mountain Teneriff in the Canaries: which made me try twice to attain it: but as often was I drove back,

and so forced to pursue my fortune along shore.

Early one morning we came to an anchor under a little point of land,

but pretty high;

and the tide beginning to flow,

we lay ready to go further in --But Xury,

whose youthful and penetrating eyes were sharper then mine,

in a soft tone,

desired me to keep far from land,

lest we should be devoured,

"For look yonder,


said he,

"and see de dreadful monster fast asleep on de side of de hill."

Accordingly looking where he pointed,

I espied a fearful monster indeed.

It was a terrible great lion that lay on shore,

covered as it were by a shade of a piece of the hill.


said I,

"you shall go on shore and kill him."

But the boy looked amazed:

"Me kill him!"

says he,

"he eat me at one mouth:" meaning one mouthful.

Upon which I bid him lie still,

and charging my biggest gun with two slugs,

and a good charge of powder,

I took the best aim I could to shoot him through the head,

but his leg lying over his nose,

the slug broke his knee-bone.

The lion awaking with the pain,

got up,

but soon fell down,

giving the most hideous groan I ever heard: but taking my second piece,

I shot him through the head,

and then he lay struggling for life.

Upon this Xury took heart and desired my leave to go on shore.

"Go then,"

said I.

Upon which taking a little gun in one hand,

he swam to shore with the other,

and coming close to the lion,

put a period to his life,

by shooting him again through the head.

But this was spending our ammunition in vain,

the flesh not being good to eat.

Xury was like a champion,

and comes on board for a hatchet,

to cut of the head of his enemy: but not having strength to perform it,

he cut off and brought me a foot.

I bethought me,


that his skin would be of use.

This work cost Xury and me a whole day: when spreading it on the top of our cabin,

the hot beams of the sun effectually dried it in two days time,

and it afterwards served me for a bed to lie on.

And now we sailed southerly,

living sparingly on our provisions,

and went no oftener on shore than we were obliged for fresh water.

My design was to make the river Gambia or Senegal,

or any where about the Cape de Verde,

in hopes to meet some European ship.

If Providence did not so favour me,

my next course was to seek for the islands,

or lose my life among the Negroes.

And in a word,

I put my whole stress upon this,

"Either that I must meet with some ship or certainly perish."

One day as we were sailing along,

we saw people stand on the shore looking at us: we could also perceive they were black and stark naked.

I was inclined to go on shore,

but Xury cried,


no:" however,

I approached nearer,

and I found they run along the shore by me a good way.

They had no weapons in their hands,

except one,

who held a long stick,

which Xury told me was a lance,

with which they could kill at a great distance.

I talked to them by signs and made them sensible I wanted something to eat: they beckoned to me to stop my boat,

while two of them ran up into the country,

and in less than half an hour came back,

and brought with them two pieces of dried flesh,

and some corn,

which we kindly accepted;

and to prevent any fears on either side,

they brought the food to the shore,

laid it down,

then went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board,

and then came close to us again.

But while we were returning thanks to them,

being all we could afford,

two mighty creatures came from the mountains: one as it were pursuing the other with great fury,

which we were the rather inclined to believe as they seldom appear but in the night: and both these swiftly passing by the Negroes,

jumped into the sea,

wantonly swimming about,

as tho' the diversion of the waters had put a stop to their fierceness.

At last one of them coming nearer to my boat than I expected or desired,

I shot him directly through the head;

upon which he sunk immediately,

and yet rising again,

would have willingly made the shore: but between the wound and the strangling of the water,

he died before he could reach it.

It is impossible to express the consternation the poor Negroes were in at the firing of my gun;

much less can I mention their surprise,

when they perceived the creature to be slain by it.

I made signs to them to draw near it with a rope,

and then gave it them to hale on shore.

It was a beautiful leopard,

which made me desire its skin: and the Negroes seeming to covet the carcase,

I freely gave it to them.

As for the other leopard,

it made to shore,

and ran with prodigious swiftness out of sight.

The Negroes having kindly furnished me with water,

and with what roots and grains their country afforded,

I took my leave,


after eleven days sail,

came in sight of the Cape de Verde,

and those islands called by its name.

But the great distance I was from it,

and fearing contrary winds would prevent my reaching them,

I began to grow melancholy and dejected,


upon a sudden,

Xury cried out,



a ship with a sail!"

and looked as affrighted as if it was his master's ship sent in search of us.

But I soon discovered she was a Portuguese ship,

as I thought bound to the coast of Guinea for Negroes.

Upon which I strove for life to come up to them.

But vain had it been,

if through their perspective glasses they had not perceived me and shortened their sail to let me come up.

Encouraged at this,

I set up my patron's ancient,

and fired a gun,

both as signals of distress;

upon which they very kindly lay to,

so that in three hours time I came up with them.

They spoke to me in Portuguese,


and French,

but neither of these did I understand;

till at length a Scots sailor called,

and then I told him I was an Englishman,

who had escaped from the Moors at Sallee: upon which they took me kindly on board,

with all my effects.

Surely none can express the inconceivable joy I felt at this happy deliverance!

who from being a late miserable and forlorn creature was not only relieved,

but in favour with the master of the ship,

to whom,

in return for my deliverance,

I offered all I had.

"God forbid,"

said he,

"that I should take any thing from you.

Every thing shall be delivered to you when you come to Brazil.

If I have saved your life it is no more than I should expect to receive myself from any other,

when in the same circumstances I should happen to meet the like deliverance.

And should I take from you what you have,

and leave you at Brazil,


this would be only taking away a life I had given.

My charity teaches me better.

Those effects you have will support you there,

and provide you a passage home again."



he acted with the strictest justice in what he did,

taking my things into his possession,

and giving me an exact inventory,

even to my earthen jars.

He bought my boat of me for the ship's use,

giving me a note of eighty pieces of eight,

payable at Brazil;

and if any body offered more,

he would make it up.

He also gave me 60 pieces for my boy Xury.

It way with great reluctance I was prevailed upon to sell the child's liberty,

who had served me so faithfully;

but the boy was willing himself;

and it was agreed,

that after ten years he should be made free,

upon his renouncing Mahometanism,

and embracing Christianity.

Having a pleasant voyage to the Brazils,

we arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos,

or All Saints Bay,

in twenty-two days after.

And here I cannot forget the generous treatment of the captain.

He would take nothing for my passage,

gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin,

and thirty for the lion's.

Every thing he caused to be delivered,

and what I would sell he bought.

In short I made about 220 pieces of my cargo;

and with this stock I entered once more,

as I may say into the scene of life.

Being recommended to an honest planter,

I lived with him till such time as I was informed of the manner of their planting and making sugar;

and seeing how well they lived,

and how suddenly they grew rich,

I was filled with a desire to settle among them,

and resolved to get my money remitted to me,

and to purchase a plantation.

To be brief,

I bought a settlement next door to an honest and kind neighbour,

born at Lisbon,

of English parents,

whose plantation joining to mine,

we improved it very amicably together.

Both our stocks were low,

and for two years we planted only for food: but the third year we planted some tobacco,

and each of us dressed a large piece of ground the ensuing year for planting canes.

But now I found how much I wanted assistance,

and repented the loss of my dear boy Xury.

Having none to assist me,

my father's words came into my mind;

and I used to ask myself,

if what I sought was only a middle station of life,

why could it not as well be obtained in England as here?

When I pondered on this with regret,

the thoughts of my late deliverance forsook me.

I had none to converse with but my neighbour;

no work to be done but by my own hands;

it often made me say,

my condition was like to that of a man cast upon a desolate island.

So unhappy are we in our reflections,

so forgetful of what good things we receive ourselves,

and so unthankful for our deliverance from these calamities that others endure.


was in some measure settled,

before the captain who took me up departed from the Brazils.

One day I went to him,

and told him what stock I had in London,

desiring his assistance in getting it remitted;

to which the good gentleman readily consented,

but would only have me send for half my money,

lest it should miscarry;


if it did,

I might still have the remainder to support me: and so taking letters of procuration of me,

bid me trouble myself no farther about it.

And indeed wonderful was his kindness towards me;

for he not only procured the money I had drawn for upon my captain's widow,

but sent me over a servant with a cargo proportionable to my condition.

He also sent me over tools of all sorts,


and utensils necessary for my plantation,

which proved to be of the greatest use to me in my business.

Wealth now accumulating on me,

and uncommon success crowning my prosperous labours,

I might have rested happy in that middle state of life my father had so often recommended,

yet nothing would content me,

such was my evil genius,

but I must leave this happy station,

for a foolish ambition in rising;

and thus,

once more,

I cast myself into the greatest gulph of misery that ever poor creature fell into.

Having lived four years in Brazil,

I had net only learned the language,

but contracted acquaintance with the most eminent planters,

and even the merchants of St. Salvadore;

to whom,


by way of discourse,

having given account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea and the manner of trading there for mere trifles,

by which we furnish our plantations with Negroes,

they gave such attention to what I said,

that three of them came one morning to me,

and told me they had a secret proposal to make.

After enjoining me to secrecy (it being an infringement on the powers of the Kings of Portugal and Spain) they told me they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea,

in order to stock the plantation with Negroes,

which as they could not be publicly sold,

they would divide among them: and if I would go their supercargo in the ship,

to manage the trading part,

I should have ah equal share of the Negroes,

without providing any stock.

The thing indeed was fair enough,

had I been in another condition.

But I,

born to be my own destroyer,

could not resist the proposal,

but accepted the offer upon condition of their looking after my plantation.

So making a formal will,

I bequeathed my effects to my good friend the captain,

as my universal heir;

but obliged him to dispose of my effects as directed,

one half of the produce to himself,

and the other to be shipped to England.

The ship being fitted out,

and all things ready,

we set sail the first of September,


being the same day eight-years I left my father and,

mother in Yorkshire.

We sailed northward upon the coast,

in order to gain Africa,

till we made Cape Augustine;

from whence going farther into the ocean,

out of sight of land,

we steered as though we were bound for the isle Fernand de Norenba,

leaving the islands on the east;

and then it was that we met with a terrible tempest,

which continued for twelve days successively,

so that the wind carried us wheresoever they pleased.

In this perplexity one of our men died,

and one man and a boy were washed overboard.

When the weather cleared up a little,

we found ourselves eleven degrees north latitude,

upon the coast of Guinea.

Upon this the captain gave reasons for returning;

which I opposed,

counselling him to stand away for Barbadoes,

which as I supposed,

might be attained in fifteen days.

So altering our course,

we sailed north-west and by west,

in order to reach the Leeward Islands;

but a second storm succeeding,

drove us to the westward;

so that we were justly afraid of falling into the hands of cruel savages,

or the paws of devouring beasts of prey.

In this great distress,

one of our men,

early in the morning cried out,


land!- which he had no sooner cried out,

but our ship struck upon a sand bank,

and in a moment the sea broke over her in such a manner that we expected we should all have perished immediately.

We knew nothing where we were,

or upon what land we were driven;

whether an island or the main,

inhabited or not inhabited;

and we could not so much as hope that the ship would hold out many minutes,

without breaking in pieces,

except the wind by a miracle should turn about immediately.

While we stood looking at one another,

expecting death every moment,

the mate lay a hold of the boat,

and with the help of the rest got her flung over the ship's side,

and getting all into her,

being eleven of us,

committed ourselves to God's mercy and the wild sea.

And now we saw that this last effort would not be a sufficient protection from death;

so high did the sea rise,

that it was impossible the boat should live.

As to making sail,

we had none;

neither if we had,

could we make use of any.

So that when we had rowed,

or rather were driven about a league and a half,

a raging wave,

like a lofty mountain,

came rolling astern of us,

and took us with such fury,

that at once it overset the boat.

Thus being swallowed up in a moment,

we had hardly time to call upon the tremendous name of God;

much less to implore,

in dying ejaculations,

his infinite mercy to receive our departing souls.

Men are generally counted insensible,

when struggling in the pangs of death;

but while I was overwhelmed with water,

I had the most dreadful apprehensions imaginable.

For the joys of heaven and the torments of hell,

seemed to present themselves before me in these dying agonies,

and even small space of time,

as it were,

between life and death.

I was going I thought I knew not whither,

into a dismal gulf unknown,

and as yet unperceived,

never to behold my friends,

nor the light of this world any more!

Could I even have thought of annihilation,

or a total dissolution of soul as well as body,

the gloomy thoughts of having no further being,

no knowledge of what we hoped for,

but an eternal -quietus-,

without life or sense: even that,

I say,

would have been enough to strike me with horror and confusion!

I strove,


to the last extremity,

while all my companions were overpowered and entombed in the deep: and it was with great difficulty I kept my breath till the wave spent itself,

and retiring back,

left me on the shore half dead with the water I had taken in.

As soon as I got on my feet,

I ran as fast as I could,

lest another wave should pursue me,

and carry me back again.

But for all the haste I made,

I could not avoid it: for the sea came after me like a high mountain,

or furious enemy;

so that my business was to hold my breath,

and by raising myself on the water,

preserve it by swimming.

The next dreadful wave buried me at once twenty or thirty feet deep,

but at the same time carried me with a mighty force and swiftness toward the shore: when raising myself,

I held out as well as possible,

till at length the water having spent itself,

began to return,

at which I struck forward,

and feeling ground with my feet,

I took to my heels again.

Thus being served twice more,

I was at length dashed against a piece of a rock,

in such a manner as left me senseless;

but recovering a little before the return of the wave,


no doubt,

would then have overwhelmed me,

I held fast by the rock till those succeeding waves abated;

and then fetching another run,

was overtaken by a small wave,

which was soon conquered.

But before any more could overtake me,

I reached the main land,

where clambering up the cliffs of the shore,

tired and almost spent I sat down on the grass,

free from the dangers of the foaming ocean.

No tongue can express the ecstasies and transports that my soul felt at the happy deliverance.

It was like a reprieve to a dying malefactor,

with a halter about his neck,

and ready to be turned off.

I was wrapt up in contemplation and often lifted up my hands,

with the profoundest humility,

to the Divine Powers,

for saving,

my life,

when the rest of my companions were all drowned.

And now I began to cast my eyes around,

to behold what place I was in and what I had next to do.

I could see no house nor people;

I was wet,

yet had no clothes to shift me;

hungry and thirsty,

yet had nothing to eat or drink;

no weapon to destroy any creature for my sustenance;

nor defend myself against devouring beasts;

in short,

I had nothing but a knife,

a tobacco pipe,

and a box half filled with tobacco.

The darksome night coming on upon me,

increased my fears of being devoured by wild creatures;

my mind was plunged in despair,

and having no prospect,

as I thought,

of life before me,

I prepared for another kind of death then what I had lately escaped.

I walked about a furlong to see if I could find any fresh water,

which I did,

to my great joy: and taking a quid of tobacco to prevent hunger,

I got up into a thick bushy tree,

and seating myself so that I could not fall,

a deep sleep overtook me,

and for that night buried my sorrows in a quiet repose.

It was broad day the next morning before I awaked;

when I not only perceived the tempest was ceased,

but law the ship driven almost as far as the rock before-mentioned,

which the waves had dashed me against,

and which was about a mile from the place where I was.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree,

I perceived the ship's boat two miles distant on my right-hand,

lying on shore,

as the waves had cast her.

I thought to have got to her;

but there being an inlet of water of about half a mile's breadth between it and me,

I returned again towards the ship,

as hoping to find something for my more immediate subsistence.

About noon,

when the sea was calm,

that I could come within a quarter of a mile of her,

it was to my grief I perceived,


if we had kept on board all our lives had been saved.

These thoughts,

and my solitude drew tears from my eyes,

though all in vain.

So resolving to get to the ship,

I stripped and leapt into the water,

when swimming round her,

I was afraid I should not get any thing to lay hold of;

but it was my good fortune to espy a small piece of rope hang down by the fore chains,

so low that,

by the help of it,

though with great difficulty,

I got into the forecastle of the ship.

Here I found that the ship was bulged,

and had a great deal of water in her hold: her stern was lifted up against a bank,

and her head almost to the water.

All her quarter and what was there,

was free and dry.

The provisions I found in good order,

with which I crammed my pockets,

and losing no time,

ate while I was doing other things: I also found some rum,

of which I took a hearty dram: and now I wanted for nothing except a boat,

which indeed was all,

to carry away what was needful for me.

Necessity occasions quickness of thought.

We had several spare yards,

a spare topmast or two,

and two or three large spars of wood.

With these I fell to work,

and flung as many of them overboard as I could manage,

tying every one of them with a rope,

that they might not drive away.

This done,

I went down to the ship's side,

and tyed four of them fast together at both ends,

in form of a raft,

and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them crosswise,

I found it would bear me,

but not any considerable weight.

Upon which I went to work again,

cutting a spare topmast into three lengths,

adding them to my raft with a great deal of labour and pains.

I then considered what I should load it with,

it being not able to bear a ponderous burden.

And this I soon thought of,

first laying upon it all the planks and boards I could get;

next I lowered down three of the seamen's chests,

after I had filled them with bread,


three Dutch cheeses,

five pieces of dried goat's flesh,

and some European corn,

what little the rats had spared: and for liquors,

I found several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper,

in which were some cordial waters,

and four or five gallons of rack,

which I stowed by themselves.

By this time the tide beginning to flow,

I perceived my coat,


and shirt,

swim away,

which I had left on the shore;

as for my linen breeches and stockings,

I swam with them to the ship;

but I soon found clothes enough,

though I took no more than I wanted for the present.

My eyes were chiefly on tools to work with;

and after a long search,

I found out the carpenter's chest,

which I got safe down on my raft.

I then looked for arms and ammunition,

and in the great cabin found two good fowling pieces,

two pistols,

several powder horns filled,

a small bag of shot,

and two old rusty swords.

I likewise found three barrels of powder,

two of which were good,

but the third had taken water,

also two or three broken oars,

two saws,

an ax,

and a hammer.

I then put to sea,

and in getting to shore had three encouragements.


A smooth calm sea.


The tide rising and letting in to shore.


The little wind there was blew towards the land.

After I had sailed about a mile,

I found the raft to drive a little distance from the place where I first landed;

and then I perceived a little opening of the land,

with a strong current of the tide running into it: upon which I kept the middle of the stream.

But great was my concern,

when on a sudden the fore part of my raft ran a ground,

so that had I not,

with great difficulty,

for near half an hour,

kept my back straining against the chests to keep my effects in their places,

all I had would have gone into the sea.

But after some time,

the rising of the water caused the raft to float again,

and coming up a little river with land on both sides,

I landed in a little cove,

as near the mouth as possible,

the better to discover a sail,

if any such providentially passed that way.

Not far off,

I espied a hill of stupendous height,

surounded with lesser hills about it,

and thither I was resolved to go and view the country that I might see what part was best,

to fix my habitation.


arming myself with a pistol a fowling piece,

powder and ball,

I ascended the mountain.

There I perceived I was in an island,

encompassed by the sea;

no distant lands to be seen but scattering rocks that lay to the west: that it seemed to be a barren place,


as I thought,

inhabited only by wild beasts.

I perceived abundance of fowls,

but ignorant of what kind,

or whether good for nourishment;

I shot one of them at my return,

which occasioned a confused screaming among the other birds,

and I found it,

by its colours and beak,

to be a kind of a hawk,

but its flesh was perfect carrion.

When I came to my raft,

I brought my effects on shore,

which work spent that day entirely;

and fearing that some cruel beasts might devour me in the night time while I slept,

I made a kind of hut or barricade with the chests and boards I had brought onshore.

That night I slept very comfortably;

and the next morning my thoughts were employed to make a further attempt on the ship,

and bring away what necessaries I could find,

before another storm should break her to pieces.

Accordingly I got on board as before,

and prepared a second raft far more nice then the first,

upon which I brought away the carpenter's stores,

two or three bags full of nails,

a great jack-screw,

a dozen or two of hatchets,

and a grind-stone.

I also took away several things that belonged to the gunner,

particularly two or three iron crows,

two barels of musket-bullets,

another fowling-piece,

a small quantity of powder,

and a large bagful of small shot.

Besides these,

I took all the men's clothes I could find,

a spare fore topsail,

a hammock,

and some bedding;

and thus completing my second cargo,

I made all the haste to shore I could,

fearing some wild beast might destroy what I had there already.

But I only found a little wild cat sitting on one of the chests,

which seeming not to fear me or the gun that I presented at her,

I threw her a piece of biscuit,

which she instantly ate,

and departed.

When I had gotten these effects on shore,

I went to work in order to make me a little tent with the sail and some poles which I had cut for that purpose;

and having finished it,

what things might be damaged by the weather I brought in,

piling all the empty chests and calks in a circle,

the better to fortify it against any sudden attempt of man or beast.

After this,

I blocked up the doors with some boards,

and an empty chest,

turned the long way out.

I then charged my gun and pistol,

and laying my bed on the ground,

slept as comfortably,

till next morning,

as though I had been in a christian country.


though I had enough to subsist me a long time,

yet despairing of a sudden deliverance,

or that both ammunition and provision might be spent before such a thing happened,

I coveted as much as I could;

and so long as the ship remained in that condition,

I daily brought away one necessary or other;

particularly the rigging,


and cordage,

some twine,

a barrel of wet powder,

some sugar,

a barrel of meal,

3 calks of rum,


what indeed was most welcome to me,

a whole hogshead of bread.

The next time I went I cut the cables in pieces,

carried off a hawser whole,

with a great deal of iron work,

and made another raft with the mizen and sprit-sail-yard;

but this being so unwieldy,

by the too heavy burden I had upon it,

and not being able so dextrously to guide it,

as the former,

both my cargo and I were overturned.

For my part,

all the damage I sustained was a wet skin;


at low water,

after much labour in diving,

I got most of the cables,

and some pieces of iron.

Thirteen days I had now been in the island,

and eleven times on board,

bringing away all that was possible,


I believe,

had the weather been calm,

I should have brought away the whole ship piece by piece.

As I was going the twelfth time,

the wind began to rise;


I ventured at low water,

and rummaging the cabin,

in a locker I found several razors,


and some dozens of knives and forks;

and in another thirty-six pounds in pieces of eight,

silver and gold.


simple vanity- said I -whom this world so much dotes on,

where is now thy virtue,

thy excellency to me?

You cannot procure me one thing needful,

nor remove me from this desolate island to a place of plenty.

One of these knives,

so meanly esteemed,

is to me more preferable than all this heap.

E'en therefore remain where thou art to sink in the deep as unregarded,

even as a creature whose life is not worth preserving.- Yet,

after all this exclamation,

I wrapt it up in a piece of canvas,

and began to think of making another raft,

but I soon perceived the wind began to arise,

a fresh gale blowing from the shore,

and the sky overcast with clouds and darkness;

so thinking a a raft to be in yaw,

I let myself into the water with what things I had about me,

and it was with much difficulty I got ashore,

when soon after it blew a fearful storm.

That night I slept very contentedly in my little tent,

surrounded with all my effects;

but when I looked out in the morning no more ship was to be seen.

This much surprised me for the present;


when I considered I had lost no time,

abated no pains and had got every thing useful out of her,

I comforted myself in the best manner,

and entirely submitted to the will of Providence.

My next thoughts were,

how I should defend and secure myself from savages and wild beasts,

if any such were in the island.

At one time I thought of digging a cave,

at another I was for erecting a tent;


at length,

I resolved to do both: The manner or form of which will not,

I hope,

be unpleasing to describe.

When I considered the ground where I was,

that it was moorish,

and had no fresh water near it,

my resolutions were to search for a soil healthy and well watered,

where I might not only be sheltered from the sun's scorching heat,

but be more conveniently situated,

as well to be secured from wild men and beasts of prey,

as more easily to discover any distant sail,

should it ever happen.



it was not long before I had my desire.

I found a little plain near a rising hill,

the front towards which being as steep as a house side,

nothing could descend on me from the top.

On the side of this rock,

was a little hollow place,

resembling the entrance or door of a cave.

Just before this place;

on the circle of the green,

I resolved my tent should stand.

This plain did not much exceed a hundred yards broad,

and about twice as long,

like a delightful green,

before my door,

with a pleasing,

though an irregular descent every way to the low grounds by the sea-side,

lying on the N. W. side of the hill,

so that it was sheltered from the excessive heat of the sun.

After this,

I drew a semi-circle,

containing ten yards in a semi-diameter,

and twenty yards in the whole,

driving down two rows;

of strong stakes,

not 6 inches from each other.

Then with the pieces of cable which I had cut on board,

I regularly laid them in a circle between the piles up to their tops,

which were more than five feet out of the earth,

and after drove another row of piles looking within side against them,

between two or three feet high,

which made me conclude it a little impregnable castle against men and beasts.

And for my better security I would have no door,

but entered in and came out by the help of a ladder,

which I also made.

[Illustration: Robinson Crusoe building his castle.

-Dr. & Eng.

by A. Carse,


Here was my fence and fortress,

into which I carried all my riches,


and stores.

After which,

working on the rock,

what with dirt and stones I dug out,

I not only raised my ground two feet,

but made a little cellar to my mansion-house;

and this cost me many days labour and pains.

One day in particular a shower of rain falling,

thunder and lighting ensued,

which put me in terror lest my powder should take fire,

and not only hinder my necessary subsistence,

by killing me food,

but even blow up me and my habitation.

To prevent which,

I fell to making boxes and bags,

in order to separate it,

having by me near 150lb.


And thus being established as king of the island,

every day I went out with my gun to see what I could kill that was fit to eat.

I soon perceived numbers of goats but very shy,

yet having watched them narrowly,

and seeing I could better shoot off the rocks than when in the low grounds,

I happened to shoot a she-goat suckling a young kid;

which not thinking its dam slain,

stood by her unconcerned;

and when I took the dead creature up,

the young one followed me even to the inclosure.

I lifted the kid over the pales,

and would willingly have kept it alive;

but finding it could not be brought to eat,

I was forced to slay it also for my subsistence.

Thus entered into as strange a scene of life as ever any man was in,

I had most melancholy apprehensions concerning my deplorable condition: and many times the tears would plentifully run down my face,

when I considered how I was debarred from all communications with human kind.

Yet while these disponding cogitations would seem to make me accuse Providence,

other good thoughts would interpose and reprove me after this manner: Well,

supposing you are desolate,

it is not better to be so than totally perish?


were you singled out to be saved and the rest destroyed?

Why should you complain,

when not only your life is preserved,

but the ship driven into your reach,

in order to take what was necessary out of her for your subsistence?

But to proceed,

it was,

by the account I kept,

the 30th of September,

when I first landed on this island.

About twelve days after,

fearing lest I should lose my reckoning of time,


even forget the Sabbath days,

for want of pen,


and paper,

I carved with a knife upon a large post,

in great letters;

and set it up: in the similitude of a cross,

on the seashore where I landed,


-Sept.- 30 1659.

Every day I cut a notch with my knife on the sides of the square post,

and this on the Sabbath was as long again as the rest;

and every first day of the month as long again as that long one.

In this manner I kept my calendar,


monthly or yearly reckoning of time.

But had I made a more strict search (as afterwards I did) I needed not have set up this mark;

for among the parcels belonging to the gunner,


and captain's mate,

I found those very things I wanted;

particularly pens,


and paper.

So I found two or three compasses,

some mathematical instruments,


perspective glasses,

books of navigation,

three English Bibles,

and several other good books,

which I carefully put up.

--Here I cannot but call to mind our having a dog and two cats on board,

whom I made inhabitants with me in my castle.

Though one might think I had all the necessities that were desirable,

yet still I found several things wanting.

My ink was daily wasting;

I wanted needles,


and thread to mend or keep my clothes together;

and particularly a spade,


or shovel,

to remove the earth.

It was a year before I finished my little bulwark;

and having some intervals of relaxation,

after my daily wandering abroad for provision,

I drew up this plan,


as creditor and debtor,

to remind me of the miseries and blessings of my life,

under so many various circumstances.


I am cast upon a desolate island,

having no hopes,

no prospects of a welcome deliverance.

Thus miserably am I singled out from the enjoyment or company of all mankind.

Like an hermit (rather should I say a lonely anchorite) am I forced from human conversation.

My clothes after some time will be worn out;

and then I shall have none to cover me.

When my ammunition is wasted,

then shall I remain without any defence against wild men and beasts.

I have no creature,

no soul to speak to;

none to beg assistance from.

Some comfort would it be to resound my woes where I am understood,

and beg assistance where I might hope for relief.


But yet I am preserved,

while my companions are perished in the raging ocean.

Yet set apart to be spared from death.

And he,

who has so preserved me,

can deliver me from this condition.


I have food to eat,

and even a happy prospect of subsistence while life endures.

At present I enjoy what is absolutely needful;

and the climate is so hot,

that had I never so many,

I would hardly wear them.

Yet if it does,

I see no danger of any hurt to me,

as in Africa;

And what if I had been cast away,

upon that coast.

Is there not God to converse to,

and is not he able to relieve thee?

Already has he afforded thee sustenance,

and put it in thy power to provide for thyself till he sends thee a deliverance.

And now easing my mind a little by these reflections,

I began to render my life as easy as possible.

I must here add,

to the description I have given of my habitation,

that having raised a turf wall against the outside of it,

I thatched it so close as might keep it from the inclemency of the weather;

I also improved it within,

enlarged my cave,

and made a passage and door in the rock,

which came out beyond the pale of my fortification.

I next proceeded to make a chair and a table,

and so began to study such mechanical arts as seemed to me practicable.

When I wanted a plank or board I hewed down a tree with my hatchet,

making it as thin with my ax as possible,

and then smooth enough with an adz to answer my designs: yet though I could make no more this way than one board out of a tree,

in length of time I got boards enough to shelter all my stores,

every thing being regularly placed,

and my guns securely hanging against the side of the rock.

This made it a very pleasant sight to me,

as being the result of vast labour and diligence;

which leaving for a while,

and me to the enjoyment of it,

I shall give the reader an account of my Journal from the day of my landing,

till the fixing and settling of my habitation,

as heretofore shown.

* * * * *


-September 30,


I unhappy Robinson Crusoe,

having suffered shipwreck,

was driven on this desolate island,

which I named the -Desolate Island of Despair-,

my companions being swallowed up in the tempestous ocean.

The next day I spent in consideration of my unhappy circumstances,

having no prospect but of death,

either to be starved with hunger,

or devoured with beasts or merciless savages.



That morning,

with great comfort,

I beheld the ship drove ashore.

Some hopes I had,

that when the storm was abated I might be able to get some food and necessaries out of her,

which I conceived were not damaged,

because the ship did stand upright.

At this time I lamented the loss of my companions,

and our misfortune in leaving the vessel.

When I perceived the ship as it were lay dry,

I waded through the sands,

then swam aboard,

the weather being very rainy,

and with scarcely any wind.

To the 14th of this month,

my time was employed in making voyages,

every tide getting what I could out of the ship.

The weather very wet and uncertain.



My raft and all the goods thereon were overset: yet I recovered most again at low water.



It blew hard,

and rained night and day,

when the ship went in pieces,

so that nothing was seen of her but the wreck at low water.

This day I secured my goods from the inclemency of the weather.



I wandered to see where I could find a place convenient for my abode.

I fixed upon a rock in the evening,

marked out a half-moon,

intending to erect a wall,

fortified with piles,

lined within with pieces of cables,

and covered with turf.



I erected my tent under a rock,

and took up my lodgings very contentedly in a hammock that night.

-Nov.- 2.

This day I fenced myself in with timber,


and boards.

-Nov.- 3.

I shot two wild fowl,

resembling ducks,

which were good to eat,

and in the afternoon made me a table.

-Nov.- 4.

I began to live regularly.

In the morning I allowed myself two or three hours to walk out with my gun;

I then worked till near eleven o'clock,

and afterwards refreshed myself,

with what I had to eat.

From twelve to two I would lie down to sleep.

Extremely sultry weather.

In the evening go to work again.

-Nov.- 5.

Went out with my gun and dog,

shot a wild ca with a soft skin,

but her flesh was good for nothing.

The skins of those I killed,

I preserved.

In my return,

I perceived many wild birds,

and was terrified by some seals which made off to sea.

-Nov.- 6.

Completed my table.

-Nov.- 7.

Fair weather.

I worked till the 12th,

but omitted the 11th,


according to my calculation,

I supposed to be Sunday.

-Nov.- 13.

Rain in abundance,



much cooled the air;

with thunder and lightening,

caused in me a terrible surprise.

The weather clearing,

I secured my powder in separate parcels.

-Nov.- 14 --16.

I made little boxes for my powder,

lodging them in several places.

I also shot a large fowl,

which proved excellent meat.

-Nov.- 17.

I began to dig in the rock,

yet was obliged to desist for want of a pickax,


and wheel-barrow.

Iron crows I caused to supply the place of the first;

but with all my art I could not make a wheel-barrow.

-Nov.- 18.

It was my fortune to find a tree,

resembling what Brazilians call an iron tree.

I had like to have spoiled my ax with cutting it,

being very hard and exceedingly heavy;

yet with much labour & industry,

I made a sort of a spade out of it.

-Nov.- 21.

These tools being made,

I daily carried on my business;

eighteen days I allowed for enlarging my cave,

that it might serve me,

not only for a warehouse,

but kitchen,


and cellar.

I commonly lay in the tent,

unless the weather was rainy that I could not lie dry.

So wet would it be at certain seasons,

that I was obliged to cover all within the pale with long poles,

in the form of rafters,

leaning against the rock,

and loaded them with flags and large leaves of trees,

resembling a thatch.

-Dec.- 10.

No sooner did I think my habitation finished,

but suddenly a great deal of the top broke in,

so that it was a mercy I was not buried in the ruins.

This occasioned a great deal of pains and trouble to me,

before I could make it firm and durable.

-Dec- 17.

I nailed up some shelves and drove nails and staples in the wall and posts to hang things out of the way.

-Dec- 20.

Every thing I got into its place,

then made a sort of a dresser,

and another table.

-Dec.- 24.


Rain in abundance.

-Dec.- 26.

Very fair weather.

-Dec.- 27.

I chanced to light on some goats,

shot one and wounded another.

I led it home in a string,

bound up its leg,

and cured it in a little time;

at length it became so tame and familiar as to feed before the door,

and follow me where I pleased.

This put me in mind to bring up tame creatures,

in order to supply me with food after my ammunition was spent.

-Dec.- 28,



The weather being excessively hot,

with little air,

obliged me for the most part,

to keep within doors.

-Jan- 1.

Still sultry,


obliged by necessity,

I went out with my gun,

and found a great store of goats in the valleys;

they were exceedingly shy,

nor could my dog hunt them down.

-Jan.- 3 to 14.

My employment this time was to finish the wall before described,

and search the island.

I discovered a kind of pigeons like our house-pigeons in a nest among the rocks.

I brought them home,

nursed them till they could fly,

and then they left me.

After this,

I shot some,

which proved excellent food.

Some time I spent vainly in contriving to make a cask;

I may well say it was vain,

because I could neither joint the staves;

nor fix the heads,

so as to make it tight: So,

leaving that,

took some goat's tallow I had about me,

and a little okum for the wick,

and provided myself with a lamp,

which served me instead of candles.

But now a very strange event happened.

For being in the height of my search,

what should come into my hand,

but a bag,

which was used to hold corn (as I supposed) for the fowls;

so immediately resolving to put gunpowder in it,

I shook all the hulks and dirt upon one side of the rock,

little expecting what the consequences would be.

The rain had fallen plentifully a few days before;

and about a month after,

to my great amazement something began to lock out very green and flourishing;

and when I came to view it more nicely,

every day as it grew,

I found about ten or twelve ears of green barley appeared in the very same shape and make as that in England.

I can scarce express the agitations of my mind at this sight.

Hitherto I had looked upon the actions of this life no otherwise than only as the events of blind chance and fortune.

But now the appearance of this barley,

flourishing in a barren soil,

and my ignorance in not conceiving how it should come there,

made me conclude -that miracles were not yet ceased:- nay,

I even thought that God had appointed it to grow there without any seed,

purely for my sustenance in this miserable and desolate island.

And indeed such great effect this had upon me,

that it often made me melt into tears,

through a grateful sense of God's mercies;

and the greater still was my thankfulness,

when I perceived about this little field of barley some rice stalks,

also wonderfully flourishing.

While thus pleased in mind,

I concluded there must be more corn in the island;

and therefore made a diligent search narrowly among the rocks;

but not being able to find any,

on a sudden it came into my mind,

how I had shaken the husks of corn out of the bag,

and then my admiration ceased,

with my gratitude to the Divine Being,

-as thinking it was but natural-,

and not to be conceived a miracle;

though even the manner of its preservation might have made me own it as a wonderful event of God's kind providence.

It was about the latter end of June when the ears of this corn ripened,

which I laid up very carefully together with 20 or 30 stalks of rice,

expecting one day I should reap the fruit of my labour;

yet four years were expired before I could allow myself to eat any barley-bread,

and much longer time before I had any rice.

After this,

with indefatigable pains and industry for three or four months,

at last I finished my wall on the 14th,

of April,

having no way to go into it,

but by ladder against the wall.

-April- 16.

I finished my ladder,

and ascended it;

afterwards pulled it up,

then let it down on the other side,

and descended into my new habitation,

where I had space enough,

and so fortified that nothing could attack me,

without scaling the walls.

But what does all human pains and industry avail,

if the blessing of God does not crown our labours?

Or who can stand before the Almighty,

when he stretcheth forth his arm?

For one time as I was at the entrance of my cave,

there happened such a dreadful earthquake,

that not only the roof of the cave came rumbling about my ears,

but the posts seemed to crack terribly at the same time.

This put me in great amazement;

and running to the ladder,

and getting over the wall,

I then plainly knew it was an earthquake,

the place I stood on sustaining three terrible shocks in less than three minutes.

But judge of my terror when I saw the top of a great rock roll into the sea;

I then expected the island would be swallowed up every moment: And what made the scene still more dreadful,

was to see the sea thrown into the most violent agitations and disorders by this tremendous accident.

For my part I stood like a criminal at the place of execution ready to expire.

At the moving of the earth,

I was,

as it were,


and very much afraid lest the rock,

under which was my fence and habitation,

should overwhelm it and myself in a lasting tomb.

When the third dreadful shock had spent itself,

my spirits began to revive;

yet still I would not venture to ascend the ladder,

but continued fitting,

not knowing what I should do.

So little grace had I then,

as only to say -Lord have mercy upon me!- and no sooner was the earthquake over,

but that pathetic prayer left me.

It was not long after,

when a horrible tempest arose,

at the same time attended with a huricane of wind.

The sea seemed mountains high,

and the waves rolled so impetously,

that nothing could be perceived but froth and foam.

Three hours did this storm continue,

and in so violent a manner,

as to tear the very trees up by the roots,

which was succeeded by abundance of rain.

When the tempest was over I went to my tent: but the rain coming on in a furious manner,

I was obliged to take shelter in the cave,

where I was forced to cut a channel through my fortification to let the water out.

It continued raining all that night,

and some time the next day.

These accidents made me resolve,

as soon as the weather cleared up,

to build me a little hut in some open place,

walled round to defend me from wild creatures and savages;

not doubting but at the next earthquake,

the mountain would fall upon my habitation and me,

and swallow up all in its bowels.

-April- 16 --20.

These days I spent in contriving how and in what manner I should fix my place of abode.

All this while I was under the most dreadful apprehensions.

When I looked round my habitation,

every thing I found in its proper place.

I had several resolutions whether I should move or not;

but at length resolved to stay where I was,

till I found out a convenient place where I might pitch my tent.

-April- 22.

When I began to put my resolutions in practice,

I was stopt for want of tools and instruments to work with.

Most of my axes and hatchets were useless,

occasioned by cutting the hard timber that grew on the island.

It took me up a full week to make my grind-stone of use to me,

and at last I found out a way to turn it about with my foot,

by help of a wheel and a string.

-April- 28 --29.

These days were spent in grinding my tools.

-April- 30.

My bread falling short,

I allowed myself but one biscuit a day.

-May- 1.

As I walked along the sea shore I found a barrel of gunpowder,

and several pieces of the wreck,

the sea had flung up.

Having secured those,

I made to the ship,

whose stern was torn off,

and washed a great distance ashore;

but the rest lay in the sands.

This I suppose was occasioned by the earthquake.

I now resolved to keep my old place of abode;

and also to go to the ship that day,

but then found it impossible.

-May- 3.

This day I went on board,

and with my saw sawed off one of the beams,

which kept her quarter-deck.

I then cleared the sand till flood.

-May- 4.

I caught some fish,

but they were not wholesome,

The same day I also catched a young dolphin.

-May 5.-

'This day I also repaired to the wreck,

and sawed another piece of timber,

and when the flood came,

I made a float of three great planks,

which were driven ashore by the tide.

-May 6,



9.- These days I brought off the iron bolts,

opened the deck with the iron crow,

and carried two planks to land,

having made a way into the very middle of the wreck.

-May 10,




14.- All this time I spent in bringing off great quantities of iron and timber.

-May 15.- Took with me two hatchets on purpose to cut off some lead from the roll,

but all in vain,

for it lay too low under water.

-May 16.- I omitted going to the wreck this day,

for employing myself in looking for pigeons,

I outstaid my time.

-May 17.- I perceived several pieces of the wreck driven ashore,

which I found belonged to the head of the ship.

-May 24.- To this day I worked on the wreck,

and with great difficulty loosened some things so much with the crow,

that at the first flowing tide several casks floated out,

and many of the seamen's chests,

yet that day nothing came to land but pieces of timber,

and a hogshead which had some Brazil pork in it.

I continued working to the 15th of June;

(except necessary times for food and rest) and had I known how to have built a boat,

I had timber and planks enough;

I had also near 100 weight of sheet lead.

-June 16.- As I was wandering towards the sea-side,

I found a large tortoise or turtle,

being the first I had seen on the island,


as I afterwards found,

there were many on the other side of it.

-June 17.- This day I spent in cooking it,

found in her threescore eggs,

and her flesh the most savoury and pleasant I ever tasted in my life.

-June 18.- I staid within this day,

there being a continual rain;

and it was somewhat more chilly and cold than usual.

-June 19.- Exceedingly bad,

being taken with a trembling and shivering.

-June 20.- Awake all night,

my head racked with pain and feverish.

-June 21.- Sick unto death,

and terrified with the dismal apprehensions of my condition.

Prayed to God more frequently,

but very confusedly.

-June 22.- Something better,

but still uneasy in my mind.

-June 23.- Again relapsed much as before.

-June 24.- Mended a second time.

-June 25.- A violent ague for seven hours,

cold and hot fits succeeded with faint sweats.

-June 26.- Better,

but very weak,

yet I scrambled out,

shot a she-goat,

brought it home and broiled some of it;

I would willingly have stewed it,

and made some broth,

but had no pod.

-June 27- All this day I was afflicted with an ague;


yet I could not help myself to water: Prayed to God in these words: -Lord,

in pity look upon me: Lord,

have mercy upon me: have mercy upon me!- After this I fell asleep,

which I found had much refreshed me when I awaked.

I fell fast asleep a second time,

and fell into this strange and terrible sort of dream.

Methought I was sitting on the same spot of ground at the outside of the wall where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake;

and that I saw a man descending from a great black cloud,

and alight upon the ground.

He was all over as bright as a flash of fire that a little before surrounded him;

his countenance inconceivably terrible;

the earth as it were trembled when he stept upon the ground,

and flashes of fire seemed to fill all the air.

No sooner I thought him landed upon the earth,

but with a long spear,

or other weapon,

he made towards me;

but first ascending a rising ground,

his voice added to my amazement,

when I thought I heard him pronounce these dreadful words,

-Unhappy wretch!

seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance,

thou shalt immediately die.- In pronouncing this dreadful sentence,

I thought he went to kill me with the spear that was in his hand.

Any body may think it impossible for me to express the horrors of my mind at this vision: and even when I awaked,

this very dream made a deep impression upon my mind.

The little divine knowledge I had,

I received from my father's instructions,

and that was worn out by an uninterrupted series of sea-faring impiety for eight years space.

Except what sickness forced from me,

I do not remember I had one thought of lifting up my heart towards God,

but rather had a certain stupidity of soul,

not having the least sense or fear of the Omnipotent Being when in distress,

nor of gratitude to him for his deliverances.


when I was on the desperate expedition on the desert African shore,

I cannot remember I had one thought of what would become of me,

or to beg his consolation and assistance in my sufferings and distress.

When the Portugal captain took me up and honorably used me,



when I was even delivered from drowning by escaping to this island,

I never looked upon it as a judgment,

but only said I was an unfortunate dog,

and that's all.

Indeed some secret transports of soul I had,

which was not through grace but only a common flight of joy,

that I was yet alive,

when my companions were all drowned,

and no other joy could I conceive but what is common with the sailors over a bowl of punch,

after they have escaped the greatest dangers.

The likelihood of wanting for neither food nor conveniences,

might have called upon me for a thankful acknowledgment to Providence.


the growth of my corn touched with some sense,

but that soon wore off again.

The terrible earthquake pointed to me,

as it were,

the finger of God,

but my dreadful amazement continued no longer than its duration.

But now,

when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper,

and I could leisurely view the miseries of death present themselves before my eyes,

then my awakened conscience began to reproach me with my past life,

in which I had so wickedly provoked the justice of God to pour down his vengeance upon me.

Such reflections as these oppressed me even in the violence of distemper.

Some prayers I uttered,

which only proceeded from the fear of death.

But when I considered my father's advice and prophecy,

I could not forbear weeping;

for he told me,

-That if I did persist in my folly,

I should not only be deprived of God's blessing,

but have time enough to reflect upon my despising his instructions,

and this,

in a wretched time,

when none could help me-.

And now concluding it to be fulfilled,

having no soul in the island to administer any comfort to me,

I prayed earnestly to the Lord,

that he would help me in this great calamity.

And this,

I think,

was the first time I prayed in sincerity for many years.

But now I must return to my journal.

-June- 28.

Something refreshed with sleep,

and the fit quite off,

I got up.

My dream still occasioned in me a great consternation;


fearing that the ague might return the succeeding day,

I concluded it time to get something to comfort me.

I filled a case bottle with water,

and set it within reach of my bed;


to make it more nourishing and less chilly,

I put some rum in it.

The next thing I did was to broil me a piece of goat's flesh,

of which I ate but little.

I was very weak;


walked about,

dreading the return of my distemper;

and at night I supped on three of the turtle's eggs,

which I roasted and ate,

begging God's blessing therewith.

After I had eaten,

I attempted to walk again out of doors with my gun;

but was so weak,

that I sat down,

and looked at the sea,

which was smooth and calm.

While I continued here,

these thoughts came into my mind.

In what manner is the production of the earth and sea,

of which I have seen so much?

From whence came myself,

and all other creatures living,

and of what are they made?

Our beings were assuredly created by some almighty invisible Power,

who framed the earth the sea,

and air,

and all therein.

But what is that Power?

Certainly it must follow that God has created it all.


said I,

if God has made all this he must be the Ruler of them all,

and what is relating thereto;

for certainly the Power that makes,

must indisputably have a power to guide and direct them.

And if this be so,

(as certainly it must) nothing can happen without his knowledge and appointment.



if nothing happens without God's appointment,

certainly God has appointed these my sufferings to befal me.

And here I fixed my firm belief that it was his will that it should be so;

and then proceeded to enquire,

why should God deal with me in this manner?

Or what have I done thus to deserve his indignation.

Here conscience flew in my face,

reprehending me as a blasphemer;

crying with a loud and piercing voice,

-Unworthy wretch!

how dare you ask what you have done?

Look on your past life,

and see what you have left undone?

Ask thyself,

why thou wert not long ago in the merciless hands of death?

Why not drowned in Yarmouth roads,

or killed in the fight,

when the ship was taken by the Sallee man of war?

Why not entombed in the bowels of wild beasts on the African coast,

or drowned here when all thy companions suffered shipwreck in the ocean.-

Struck dumb with these reflections,

I rose up in a pensive manner,

being so thoughtful that I could not go to sleep;

and fearing the dreadful return of my distemper,

it caused me to remember,

that the Brazilians use tobacco for almost all diseases.

I then went to my chest in older to find some,

where Heaven,

no doubt,

directed me to find a cure for both soul and body;

for there I found one of the Bibles,


till this time,

I had neither leisure nor inclination to look into,

I took both the tobacco and that out of the chest,

and laid them on the table.

Several experiments did I try with the tobacco: First,

I took a piece or leaf,

and chewed it;

but it being very green and strong,

almost stupified me.

Next I steeped it in some rum an hour or two,

resolving when I went to bed to take a dole of it: and,

in the third place,

I burnt some over a pan of fire,

holding my nose over it as long as I could endure it without suffocation.

In the intervals of this operation,

though my head was giddy and disturbed by the tobacco,

I took up the Bible to read.

No sooner did I open it,

but there appeared to me these words -Call on me in the day of trouble,

and I will deliver thee,

and thou shall glorify me-.

At first this sentence made a very deep impression on my heart,

but it soon wore off again,

when I considered the word -deliver- was foreign to me.

And as the children of Israel said,

when they were promised flesh to eat,

-Can God spread a table in the wilderness?- in like manner I began to say,

-Can God himself deliver me from this desolate island?- However,

the words would still return to my mind,

and afterwards made a greater impression upon me.

As it was now very late,

and the tobacco had dazed my head,

I was inclined to sleep: but before I would lie down I fell on my knees,

and implored the promise that God had made to me in the Holy Scriptures,

that -if I called upon him in the day of trouble he would deliver me.- With much difficulty I afterwards drank the rum wherein I had steeped the tobacco,

which flying into my head,

threw me into such a profound sleep,

that it was three o'clock the next day before I awaked;

or rather,

I believe,

I slept two days,

having certainly lost a day in my account,

and I could never tell any other way.

When I got up,

my spirits were lively and cheerful;

my stomach much better,

being very hungry;


in short,

no fit returned the next day,

which was the 29th,

but I found myself much altered for the better.

The 30th,

I went abroad with my gun,

but not far,

and killed a sea-fowl or two,

resembling a brand goose,



I cared not to eat when I brought them home,

but dined on two more of the turtle's eggs.

In the evening I renewed my medicine,

excepting that I did not take so large a quantity,

neither did I chew the leaf,

or hold my head over the smoke: but the next day,

which was the 1st of -July-,

having a little return of the cold fit,

I again took my medicine as I did the first time.

-July- 3.

The fit quite left me,

but very weak.

In this condition,

I often thought of these words,

-I will deliver thee-;

and while,

at some times,

I would think of the impossibility of it,

other thoughts would reprehend me for disregarding the deliverances I had received,

even from the most forlorn and distressed condition.

I asked myself,

what regard have I had to God for his abundant mercies?

Have I done my part-: He has delivered me,

but I have not glorified him:- --as if I had said,

I had not owned and been thankful for these as deliverances,

and how could I expect greater?

So much did this sensibly touch my heart,

that I gave God thanks for my recovery from weakness in the most humble prostration.

-July- 4.

This morning I began seriously to ponder on what is written in the New Testament,

resolving to read a chapter every morning and night as long an my thoughts would engage me.

As soon as I set about this work seriously,

I found my heart deeply affected with the impiety of my past life;

these words that I thought were spoken to me in my dream revived,

-All these things have not brought thee to repentance.- After this,

I begged of God to assist me with his Holy Spirit in returning to my duty.

One day in perusing the Scriptures,

I came to these words,

-He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour,

to give repentance and to give remission-: Immediately I laid down the book,

and with uplifted hands to Heaven,

loudly cried,

-O blessed Jesus,

thou son of David,


thou exalted Prince and Saviour,

give we repentance!- And now indeed I prayed with a true sense of my condition,

and a more certain hope,

founded on the word of God.

Now I had a different sense of these words,

-Call on me and I will deliver thee-,

that is from the dreadful load of guilt which oppressed my sinful soul,

and not from a solitary life,

which might rather be called,

a blessing,

seeing I wanted neither food nor raiment,

when compared living amongst the human race,

surrounded with so much oppression,


and affliction;

in a word,

I came to this conclusion,

that a deliverance from sin was a much greater blessing,

than a deliverance from affliction.

But again I proceed to my journal.

To the 14th of -July-,

I walked about with my gun,

little and little at a time,

having been reduced to the greatest extremity of weakness.

The applications and experiments I used were perfectly new: neither could I recommend them to any one's practice.

For though it carried off the fit,

it very much weakened me,

and I had frequently convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time.

From this I learned,

that going abroad in rainy weather,

especially when it was attended with storms and hurricanes of wind,

was most pernicious to health.

I had now been about ten months in the island;

and as I never had seen any of the human kind,

I therefore accounted myself as sole monarch;

and as I grew better,

having secured my habitation to my mind,

I resolved to make a tour round my kingdom,

in order to make new discoveries.

The 15th of -July-,

I began my journey;

I first went to the creek,

where I had brought my rafts on shore;

and travelling farther,

found the tide went no higher than two miles up,

where there was a little brook of running water,

on the banks of which were many pleasant savannahs or meadows,



and covered with grass.

On the rising parts,

where I supposed the water did not reach,

I perceived a great deal of tobacco growing to a very strong stalk.

Several other plants I likewise found,

the virtues of which I did not understand.

I searched a long time for the Cassava root,

which I knew the Indians in that climate made their bread of,

but all in vain.

There were several plants of aloes,

though at that time I knew not what they were;

likewise I saw several sugar canes,

but imperfect for want of cultivation.

With these few discoveries,

I came back that night,

and slept contentedly in my little castle.

The next day,

being the 16th,

going the same way,

but farther then the day before,

I found the country more adorned with woods and trees.

Here I perceived different fruits in great abundance.

Melons in plenty lay on the ground,

and clusters of grapes,

ripe and very rich,

spread over the trees.

You may imagine I was glad of this discovery,

yet ate very sparingly,

lest I should throw myself into a flux or fever.

The grapes I found of excellent use;

for when I had dried them in the sun,

which preserved them as dried raisins are kept,

they proved very wholesome and nourishing,

and served me in those seasons when no grapes were to be had.

The night drawing on apace,

I ascended up a tree,

and slept very comfortably,

though it was the first time I had lain out of my habitation.

And when the morning came,

I proceeded with great pleasure on my way,

travelling about four miles,

as I imagined,

by the length of the valley,

directing my course northward,

there being a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me.

At the end of this valley,

I came to an opening,

where the country seemed to descend to the west;

there I found a little spring of fresh water,

proceeding out of the side of the hill,

with its chrystal streams running directly east.



here my senses were charmed with the most beautiful landscape nature could afford;

for the country appeared flourishing,


and delightful,

that to me it seemed like a planted garden.

I then descended on the side of that delicious vale,

when I found abundance of cocoa,



and citron trees,

but very wild and barren at that time.

As for the limes,

they were delightful and wholesome,

the juice of which I after used to mix in water,

which made it very cooling and refreshing.

And now I was resolved to carry home and lay up a store of grapes,


and lemons,

against the approaching wet season.

So laying them up in separate parcels,

and then taking a few of each with me,

I returned to my little castle,

after having spent three days in this journey.

Before I got home,

the grapes were so bruised that they were utterly spoiled;

the limes indeed were good,

but of those I could bring only a few.

-July 19-.

Having prepared two bags,

I returned thither again,


to my great surprise,

found all the grapes spread about,

trod to pieces,

and abundance eaten,

which made me conclude there were wild beasts thereabouts.

To prevent this happening again,

I gathered a large quantity of the grapes,

and hung them upon the out branches of the tree,

both to keep them unhurt,

and that they might cure and dry in the sun;

and having well loaded myself with limes and lemons,

I returned once more to my old place of residence.

And now contemplating on the fruitfulness of this valey,

and pleasantness of its situation,

its security from storms,

and the delightfulness of the adjacent woods,

I concluded I was settled in the worst part of the country,

and therefore was thinking to remove my habitation.

But when I considered again,

that though it was pleasant,

it was off from the sea-side,

where there was a possibility,

some time or other,

a ship might either be driven or sail by;

and that to inclose myself among hills and woods must certainly put an end to my hopes of deliverance;

I resolved to let my castle remain where Providence had first assigned it.

Yet so ravished was I with this place,

that I made me a little kind of bower,

surrounding it with a double hedge,

as high as I could reach,

well staked and filled with bullrushes: and having spent a great part of the month of -July-,

I think it was the first of -August- before I began to enjoy my labour.


3.- Perceiving my grapes to be dry,

I took them from the trees,

and they proved excellent good raisins of the sun: the most of which I carried to my cave;

and happy for me I did so;

by which I saved the best part of my winter food.



This day it began to rain;

and though I had made me a tent like the other,

yet having no shelter of a hill to keep me from storms,

nor a cave behind me to retreat to,

I was obliged to return to my old castle.

The rain continued more or less every day,

till the middle of -October;- and sometimes so violently,

that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

This season I found my family to increase;

for one of my cats that ran away from me,

and which I thought had been dead,

returned about -August-,

with three kittens at her heels,

like herself,

which I thought strange,

because both my cats were females,

and the wild cats of the island seemed to be of a different kind from our European cats;

but from these cats proceeded such numbers,

that I was forced to kill and destroy them as I would do wild beasts and vermin.

To the 26th of this month,

I could not stir out,

it raining incessantly;

when beginning to want food,

I was compelled to venture twice,

the first of which I shot a goat,

and afterwards found a very large tortoise.

The manner of my regulating my food was thus: a bunch of raisins served me for my breakfast;

a piece of goat's flesh or turtle boiled for my dinner,

and two or three turtle's eggs for my supper.

While the rain lasted,

I daily worked two or three hours at enlarging my cave,

and by degrees worked it on towards one side,

till I came to the outside of the hill,

and made a door or way out,

which came beyond my fence or wall,

and so I came in and out this way.

But after I had done this,

I was troubled to see myself thus exposed;

though I could not perceive any thing to fear,

a goat being the biggest creature I had seen upon this island.



Casting up my notches on my post,

which amounted to 365,

I concluded this to be the anniversary of my landing;



humbly prostrating myself on the ground,

confessing my sins,

acknowledging God's righteous judgments upon me,

and praying to Jesus Christ to have mercy upon me,

I fasted for twelve hours till the going down of the sun;

and then eating a biscuit and a bunch of grapes,

laid me on the bed,

and with great comfort took my night's repose.

Till this time I never had distinguished the Sabbath-day;

but now made a longer notch than ordinary for the days of rest,

and divided the weeks as well as I could,

though I found I had lost a day or two in my account.

My ink failing soon after,

I omitted in my daily memorandum things of an indifferent nature,

& contented myself to write down only the most remarkable events of my life.

The rainy and dry seasons appeared now regular to me,

and experience taught me how to provide for them;


in one thing I am going to relate,

my experience very much failed me.

You may call to mind what I have mentioned of some barley and rice which I had saved;

about thirty stalks of the former,

and twenty of the latter;

and at that time,

the sun being in its southern position,

going from me,

together with the rains,

made me conclude it a very proper season to sow it.

Accordingly I dug up a piece of ground,

with my wooden spade,

and dividing it into two parts,

sowed about two thirds of my seed,

preserving by me about a handful of each.

And happy it was I did so;

for no rains falling,

it was choaked up,

and never appeared above the earth till the wet season came again,

and then part of it grew,

as if it had been newly sown.

I was resolved all to make another trial;

and seeking for a moister piece of ground near my bower,

I there sowed the rest of my seed in February,

a little before the vernal equinox;

which having the rainy months of March and April to water it,

yielded a noble crop,

and sprang up very pleasantly.

I had still saved part of the seed,

not daring to venture all;

and by the time I found out the proper seasons to sow it in,

and that I might expect every year two seed-times and two harvests,

my stock amounted to above half a peck of each sort of grain.

No sooner were the rains over,

but the stakes which I had cut from the trees,

shot out like willows the first year after lopping their heads.

I was ignorant of the tree I cut them from;

but they grew so regularly beautiful,

that they made a most lively appearance,

and so flourished in three year's time,

that I resolved to cut more of them;

and these soon growing made a glorious fence,

as afterwards I shall observe.

And now I perceived that the seasons of the year might generally be divided,

not into summer and winter,

as in Europe,

but into wet and dry seasons,

as in this manner:

/ February,\

Half< March,

> Rainy,

sun coming near the Equinox.

\ April,


/ April,


| May,


Half< June,

> Dry,

sun getting north of the Line.

| July,


\ August,


/ August,


Half< September,

> Wet,

the sun being then come back.

\ October,


/ October,


| November,


Half< December,

> Dry,

sun running south of the Line.

| January,


\ February,


The wet seasons would continue longer or shorter,

as the winds happened to blow.

But having found the ill consequences of being abroad in the rain,

I took care beforehand to furnish myself with provisions;

and during the wet months sat within doors as much as possible.

At this time I contrived to make many things that I wanted,

though it cost me much labour and pains,

before I could accomplish them.

The first I tried was to make a basket;

but all the twigs I could get proved so brittle,

that I could not then perform it.

It now proved of great advantage to me that when a boy,

I took great delight in standing at a basket-maker's in the same town where my father lived,

to view them at work;

and like other boys,

curious to see the manner of their working these things and very officious to assist,

I perfectly learned the method of it,

and wanted nothing but the tools.

And it coming into my mind that the twigs of that tree of which I made my stakes,

might be as tough as a fallow willow,

or osiers,

growing in England,

I resolved to make an experiment,

and went the next day to my country-seat,

and found some fit for my turn;

and after cutting down a quantity with my hatchet,

I dried them in my pale,


when fit to work with,

carried them to my cave,

where I employed myself in making several sorts of baskets,

insomuch that I could put in whatsoever I pleased.

It is true,

they were not cleverly made,

yet they served my turn upon all occasions.

But still I wanted two necessary things.

I had no cask to hold my liquor,

except two rundlets almost full of rum,

a few bottles of an ordinary size,

and some square case bottles,

neither had I a pot to boil any thing in,

only a large kettle unfit to make broth,

or stew a bit of meat: I wanted,

likewise at the beginning of this dry season a tobacco pipe;

but for this I afterwards found an expedient.

I kept myself employed in planting my second row of stakes,

But remembering that when I travelled up to the brook,

I had a mind to see the whole island,

I now resumed my intention,

and taking my dog,



two biscuit cakes,

a great bunch of raisins,

with a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual,

I began my journey.

Having passed the vale where my bower stood,

I came within view of the sea lying to the west when it being a clear day,

I fairly descried land,

extending from the W. to the S.W.

about ten or fifteen leagues,

as I concluded;

but could not say whether it was an island or a continent.

--Neither could I tell what this place might be;

only thought it was part of America,

& where I might have been in a miserable condition,

had I landed.

Again I considered that if this was the Spanish coast,


one time or other,

I should see some ship pass by;

and if it was not,

then it must be the savage coast,

between the Spanish country and Brazil,

which abounds with cannibals or man-eaters.

As I proceeded forward I found this side of the island much more pleasant than mine;

the fields fragrant adorned with sweet flowers & verdant grass,

together with several very,

fine woods.

There were parrots in plenty,

which made me long for one to be my companion;

but it was with great difficulty I could knock one down with my stick;

and I kept him at home some years before I could get him to call me by my name.

In the low grounds,

I found various sorts of hares and foxes,

as I took them to be,

but much different from those in England.

Several of these I killed,

but never ate them;

neither indeed had I any occasion;

for abounding with goats,



and grapes,

I could defy Leadenhall market to furnish me a better table.

In this journey I did not travel above two miles a-day,

because I took several turns and windings,

to see what discoveries I could make,

returning weary enough to the place where I designed to rest all night,

which was either in a tree,

or in a place which I surrounded with stakes,

that no wild creature might suddenly surprise me.

When I came to the sea shore,

I was amazed to see the splendour of it.

Its strand was covered with shells of the most beautiful fish,

and constantly abounding with innumerable turtles,

and fowls of many kinds,

which I was ignorant of,

except those called penguins.

I might have shot as many as I pleased,

but was sparing of my ammunition,

rather choosing to kill a she-goat,

which I did with much difficulty,

on account of the flatness of the country.

Now though this journey produced me the most pleasing satisfaction,

yet my habitation was so much to my liking,

that I did not repine at my being seated on the worst part of the island.

I continued my journey,

travelling about twelve miles further towards the east,

where I set a great pile on the shore for a mark,

concluding that my next journey should bring me to the other side of the island,

east from my castle,

and so round till I came to my post again.

As I had a constant view of the country,

I thought I could not miss my way;

but scarce had I travelled three miles,

when I descended into a very large valley,

so surrounded with hills covered with wood,

that I having no guide but the sun,

nor even this,

unless I knew will the position of the sun at the time of day;

and to add to my misfortune,

the weather proving very hazy,

I was obliged to return to my post by the sea-side,

and so backwards the same way I came.

In this journey my dog surprised a kid and would have killed it,

had I not prevented him.

As I had often been thinking of getting a kid or two,

and so raising a breed of tame goats to supply me after my ammunition was spent,

I took this opportunity of beginning: and having made a collar for this little creature,

with a string made of rope-yarn,

I brought it to my bower,

and there inclosed and left him;


having spent a month in this journey,

at length I returned to my habitation.

Nobody can doubt of my satisfaction,

when I returned to my little castle,

and reposed myself in my hammock.

After my journey I rested myself a week,

which time I employed in,

making a cage for my pretty Poll.

I now began to consider the poor kid I had left in the bower,

and I immediately went to fetch it home.

When I came there I found the young creature almost starved;

I gave it some food,

and tied it as before: but there was no occasion,

for it followed me like a dog;


as I constantly fed it,

it became so loving,


and fond,

that it commenced one of my domestics,

and would never leave me.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox being now come,

I kept the 30th of September in the most solemn manner,

as usual,

it being the third year of my abode in the island.

I spent the whole day in acknowledging God's mercies,

in giving him thanks for making this solitary life as agreeable,

and less sinful,

than that of human society;

and for the communications of his grace to my soul,

in supporting,


and encouraging me to depend,

upon his Providence,

and hope for his eternal presence in the world to come.


I often did consider how much more happy I was in this fate of life,

than in that accursed manner of living formerly used;

and sometimes when hunting,

or viewing the country,

the anguish of my soul would break out upon me,

and my very heart would sink within me,

to think of the woods,

the mountains,

the desarts I was in;

and how I was a prisoner locked up within the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean,

in an uninhabited wilderness,

without hopes,

and without redemption: In this condition I would often wring my hands,

and weep like a child: And even sometimes,

in the middle of my work,

this fit would take me;

and then I would sit down and sigh,

looking on the ground for an hour or two together,

till such time as my grief got vent in a flood of tears.

One morning as I was sadly employed in this manner,

I opened my Bible,

when I immediately fixed my eyes upon these words,

-I will never leave thee,

nor forsake thee!- Surely,

thought I,

these words are directed to me,

or else why should they appear just at a moment when I am bemoaning my forlorn condition?

and if God does not forsake,

what matters it,

since he can me more happy in this state of life,

than if I enjoyed the greatest splendour in the world?

But while I was going to return God thanks for my present state,

something seemed to shock my mind,

as if it had thus said: -Unworthy wretch;

can you pretend to be thankful for a condition,

from which you would pray to be delivered-?

Therefore I stopt: --and tho' I could not say,

I thanked the Divine Majesty for being there,

yet I gave God thanks for placing in my view my former course of life,

and granting me a true knowledge of repentance.

And whenever I opened or read the Bible,

I blessed kind Providence,

that directed my good friend in England to send it among my goods without any order,

and for assisting me to save it from the power of the raging ocean.

And now beginning my third year,

my several daily employments were these: -First-,

My duty to Heaven,

and diligently reading the Holy Scriptures,

which I did twice or thrice every day: -Secondly-,

Seeking provision with my gun,

which commonly took me up,

when it did not rain,

three hours every morning: -Thirdly-,

The ordering,



and cooking what I killed,

or catched for my supply which took me up great part of the day: for,

in the middle of the day,

the sun being in its height,

it was so hot,

that I could not stir out;

so that I had only but four hours in the evening to work in: and then the want of tools,

of assistance,

and skill,

wasted a great deal of time to little purpose.

I was no less than two and forty days making a board fit for a long shelf,

which two sawyers with their tools and saw-pit,

would have cut off the same tree in half a day.

It was a large tree,

as my board was to be broad.

I was three days in cutting it down and two more in lopping off the boughs,

and reducing it to a piece of timber.

This I hacked and hewed off each side,

till it became light to move;

then I turned it,

made one side of is smooth and flat as a board from end to end,

then turned it downward,

cutting the other side,

till I brouht the plank to be about three inches thick,

and smooth on both sides.

Any body may judge my great labour and fatigue in such a piece of work;

but this I went through with patience,

as also many other things that my circumstances made necessary for me to do.

The harvest months,

November and December,

were now at hand,

in which I had the pleasing prospect of a very good crop.

But here I met with a new problem;

for the goats and hares,

having tasted of the outshoot of the blade,

kept it to short that it had not strengthen to shoot up into a stalk.

To prevent this,

I enclosed it with a hedge,

and by day shot some of its devourers;

and my dog which I had tied to the field-gate,

keeping barking all night;

so frightened those creatures,

that I got entirely rid of them.

But no sooner did I get rid of these,

than other enemies appeared,

to wit,

whole flocks of several sorts of birds,

who only waited till my back was turned,

to ruin me: so much did this provoke me,

that I let fly,

and killed three of the malefactors;

and afterwards served them as they do notorious thieves in England,

hung them up in chains as a terror to others.



to good an effect had this that they not only forsook the corn,

but all that part of the island,

so long as these criminals hung there.

My corn having ripened apace,

the latter end of December,

which was my second harvest,

I reaped it with a scythe,

made of one of my broad swords.

I had no fatigue in cutting down my my first crop it was so slender.

The ears I carried home in a basket,

rubbing it with my hands,

instead of threshing it: and when the harvest was over,

found my half peck of seed produced near two bushels of rice,

and two bushels and a half of barley.

And now I plainly foresaw,

that by God's goodness,

I should be furnished with bread;

but yet I was concerned,

because I knew not how to grind or make meal of my corn,

nor bread,

neither knew how to bake it.

I would not however,

taste any of the crop,

but resolved to preserve it against next season,


in the mean while,

use my best endeavours to provide myself with other food.

But where were my labours to end?

The want of a plough to turn up the earth,

or shovel to dig it,

I conquered by making me a wooden spade.

The want of a harrow I supplied myself,

with dragging over the corn a great bough of a tree.

When it was growing I was forced to fence it;

when ripe to mow it,

carry it home,

thrash it,

part it from the chaff,

and save it.


after all,

I wanted a mill to grind it,

sieve to dress it,

yest and salt to make it into bread,

and an oven to bake it.

This set my brains to work to find some expedient for every one of these necessaries against the next harvest.

And now having more seed,

my first care was to prepare me more land.

I pitched upon two large flat pieces of ground near my castle,

for that purpose,

in which sowed my seed,

and fenced it with a good hedge.

This took me up three months: by which time the wet season coming on,

and the rain keeping me within doors,

I found several occasions to employ myself;


while at work,

used to divert myself in talking to my parrot,

learning him to know and speak his own name -Poll- the first welcome word I ever heard spoke in the island.

I had been a long time in contriving how to make earthen vessels,

which I wanted extremely;

and when I considered the heat of the climate,

I did not doubt but if I could find any such clay,

I might botch up a pot,

strong enough,

when dried in the sun,

to bear handling,

and to hold any thing that was dry,

as corn,


and other things.

To be short,

the clay I found;

but it would occasion the most serious person to smile,

to see what aukward ways I took,

and what ugly misshapen things I made;

how many either fell out or cracked by the violent heat of the sun,

and fell in pieces when they were removed;

so that I think it was two months time before I could perfect any thing: and even then but two clumsy things in imitation of earthen jars.



I very gently placed in wicker baskets,

made on purpose for them,

and between the pot and the baskets,

stuffed it full of rice and barley straw,

and these I presume would hold my dried corn,

and perhaps the meal when the corn was bruised.

As for the smaller thing,

I made them with better success,

such as little round pots,

flat dishes,


and pipkins,

the fun baking them very hard.

Yet still I wanted one thing absolutely necessary,

and that was an earthen pot,

not only to hold my liquid,

but also to bear the fire,

which none of these could do.

It once happened that as I was putting out my fire,

I found therein a broken piece of one of my vessels burnt as hard as a rock,

and red as a tile.

This made me think of burning some pots;

and having no notion of a kiln,

or of glazing them with leaf,

I fixed three large pipkins,

and two or three pots in a pile one upon another.

The fire I piled round the outside,

and dry wood on the top,

till I saw the pots in the inside red hot,

and found out that,

they were net crackt at all: and when I perceived them perfectly red,

I let one of them stand in the fire about five or six hours,

till the clay melted by the extremity of the heat,

and would have run to glass,

had I suffered it;

upon which I slacked my fire by degrees,

till the redness abated;

and watching them till the morning,

I found I had three very good pipkins,

and two earthen pots,

as well burnt and fit for my turn as I could desire.

No joy could be greater than mine at this discovery.

For after this,

I may say,

I wanted for no fort of earthen ware.

I filled one of my pipkins with water to boil me some meat,

which it did admirably well,

and with a piece of kid I made me some good broth,

as well as my circumstances would afford me at that time.

The next concern I had was to get me a stone-morter to beat some corn in,

instead of a mill to grind it.

Here indeed I was at a great loss,

as not being fit for a stone-cutter;

and many days I spent to find out a great stone big enough to cut hollow and make fit for a morter,

and strong enough to bear the weight of a pestil,

and that would break the corn without filling it with sand.

But all the stones of the island being of a mouldering nature,

rendered my search fruitless;

and then I resolved to look out for a great block of hard wood,

which having found,

I formed it with my ax and hammer,

and then,

with infinite labour,

made a hollow in it,

just as the Indians of Brazil make their canoes.

When I had finished this,

I made a great pestil of iron wood,

and then laid them up against my succeeding harvest.

My next business was to make me a sieve,

to sift my meal and part it from the bran and husk.

Having no fine thin canvas to search the meal through,

I could not tell what to do.

What linen I had was reduced to rags: I had goat's hair,


but neither tools to work it,

nor did I know how to spin it: At length I remembered I had some neckcloths of calico or muslin of the sailors,

which I had brought out of the ship,

and with these I made three small sieves proper enough for the work.

I come now to consider the baking part.

The want of an oven I supplied by making some earthen pans very broad but not deep.

When I had a mind to bake,

I made a great fire upon the hearth,

the tiles of which I had made myself;

and when the wood was burnt into live coals,

I spread them over it,

till it became very hot;

then sweeping them away,

I set down my loaves,

and whelming down the earthen pots upon them,

drew the ashes and coals all around the outsides of the pots to continue the heat;

and in this manner I baked my barley loaves,

as well as if I had been a complete pastry-cook,

and also made of the rice several cakes and puddings.

It is no wonder that these things took me up the best part of a year,

since what intermediate time I had was bestowed in managing my new harvest and husbandry;

for in the proper season I reaped my corn,

carried it home,

and laid it up in the ear in my large baskets,

til I had time to rub,

instead of thrashing it.

And now,


my corn increased so much,

that it produced me twenty bushels of barley,

and as much rice,

that I not only began to use it freely,

but was thinking how to enlarge my barns,

and resolved to sow as much at a time as would be sufficient for me for a whole year.

All this while,

the prospect of land,

which I had seen from the other side of the island,

ran in my mind.

I still meditated a deliverance from this place,

though the fear of greater misfortunes might have deterred me from it.


allowing that I had attained that place,

I run the hazard of being killed and eaten by the devouring cannibals: and if they were not so,

yet I might be slain,

as other Europeans had been,

who fell into their hands.

Notwithstanding all this,

my thoughts ran continually upon that shore.

I now wished for my boy Xury,

and the long boat,

with the shoulder of mutton sail: I went to the ship's boat that had been cast a great way on the shore in the late storm.

She was removed but a little;

but her bottom being turned up by the impetuosity and fury of the waves and wind,

I fell to work with all the strength I had,

with levers and rollers I had cut from the wood,

to turn her,

and repair the damages she had sustained.

This work took me up three or four weeks,

when finding my little strength all in vain,

I fell to undermining it by digging away the sand,

and so to make it fall down,

setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it in the fall.

But after this was done,

I was still unable to stir it up,

or to get under it,

much less to move it forward towards the water,

and so I was forced to give it over.

This disapointment,

however did not frighten me.

I began to think whether it was not possible for me to make a canoe or perigua,

such as the Indians make of the trunk of a tree,

But here I lay under particular inconveniencies;

want of tools to make it,

and want of hands to move it in the water when it was made.


to work I went upon it,

stopping all the inquiries I could make,

with this very simple answer I made to myself,

-Let's first make it,

I'll warrant I'll find some way or other to get it along when it is done-.

I first cut down a cedar tree,

which was five feet ten inches diameter at the lower part next the stump,

and four feet eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-two feet,

after which it lessened for a space,

and then parted into branches.

Twenty days was I a hacking and hewing this tree at the bottom,

fourteen more in cutting off the branches and limbs,

and a whole month in shaping it like the bottom of the boat.

As for the inside,

I was three weeks with a mallet and chissel,

clearing it in such a manner,

as that it was big enough to carry twenty-six men,

much bigger than any canoe I ever saw in my life,

and confequentiy sufficient to transport me and all my effects to that wished-for shore I so ardently desired.

Nothing remained now,



the greatest difficulty to get it into the water,

it lying about one hundred yards from it.

To remedy the first inconvenience,

which was a rising hill between the boat and the creek,

with wonderful pains and labour I dug into the bowels of the earth,

and made a declivity.

But when this was done,

all the strength I had was as insufficient to remove it,

as it was when I attempted to remove the boat.

I then proceeded to measure the difference of ground,

resolving to make a canal,

in order to bring the water to the canoe,

since I could not bring the canoe to the water.

But as this seemed to be impracticable to myself alone,

under the space of eleven or twelve years,

it brought me into some sort of consideration: so that I concluded this also to be impossible,

and the attempt altogether vain.

I now saw,

and not before,

-what stupidity it is to begin a work before we reckon its costs,

or judge rightly our own abilities to go through with its performance-.

In the height of this work my fourth year expired,

from the time I was cast on this island,

At this time I did not forget my anniversary;

but kept it with rather greater devotion than before.

For now my hopes being frustrated,

I looked upon this world as a thing had nothing to do with;

and very well might I say as Father Abraham said unto Dives,

-Between thee and me there is a gulph fixed.- And indeed I was separated from its wickedness too,

having neither the lust of the flesh,

the lust of the eye,

nor the pride of life;

I had nothing to covet,

being lord,

king and emperor over the whole country I had in possession,

without dispute and without control: I had loadings of corn,

plenty of turtles,

timber in abundance,

and grapes above measure.

What was all the rest to me?

the money I had lay by me as despicable dross,

which I would freely have given for a gross of tobacco pipes,

or a hard mill to grind my corn: in a word the-nature and experience of these things dictated to me this just reflection: -That the good things of this world are no farther good to us,

than they are for our use;

and that whatever we may heap up to give to others,

we can but enjoy as much as we use,

and no more.-

These thoughts rendered my mind more easy than usual.

Every time I sat down to meat,

I did it with thankfulness,

admiring the providential hand of God,

who in this wilderness had spread a table to me.

And now I considered what I enjoyed,

rather than what I wanted,

compared my present condition with what I at first expected it should be;

-how I should have done,

if I had got nothing out of the ship,

that I must have perished before I had caught fish or turtles;

or lived,

had I found them,

like a mere savage,

by eating them raw,

and pulling them in pieces with my claws,

like a beast-.

I next compared my station to that which I deserved: -how undutiful I had been to my parents;

how destitute of the fear of God;

bow void of every thing that was good;

and how ungrateful for those abundant mercies I had received from Heaven,

being fed as it were,

by a miracle,

even as great as Elijah's being fed by ravens;

and cast on a place where there is no venomous creatures to poison or devour me-;

in short making God's tender mercies matter of great consolation,

I relinquished all sadness,

and gave way to contentment.

As long as my ink continued,

which with water I made last as long as I could,

I used to minute down the days of the month on which any remarkable event happened.



I observed,

-that the same day I forsook my parents and friends,

and ran away to Hull,

in order to go to sea,

the same day afterwards in the next year,

I was taken and made a slave by the Sallee rovers-.

-That the very day I escaped out of the wreck of the ship in Yarmouth roads,

a year after on the same day,

I made my escape from Sallee in my patron' fishing boat-.

-And on the 30th of September,

being the day of the year I was born on,

on that day twenty-six years after,

was I miraculously saved,

and cast ashore on this island-.

The next thing that wasted after my ink,

was the biscuit which I had brought out of the ship,

and though I allowed myself but one cake a day,

for above a twelvemonth,

yet I was quite out of bread for near a year,

before I got any corn of my own.

In the next place,

my clothes began to decay,

and my linen had been gone long before.


I had preserved about three dozen of the sailors chequered shirts,

which proved a great refreshment to me,

when the violent beams of the sun would not suffer me to bear any of the seamen's heavy watch coats,

which made me turn taylor,


after a miserable botching manner,

convert them to jackets.

To preserve my head,

I made me a cap of goat-skins,

with the hair outwards to keep out the rain;

which indeed served me so well,

that afterwards I made me a waistcoat and opened-kneed breeches of the fame: And then I contrived a sort of an umbrella,

covering it with skins,

which not only kept out the heat of the sun,

but rain also.

Thus being easy,

and settled in my mind,

my chief happiness was to converse with God,

in most heavenly and comfortable ejaculations.

For five years after this I cannot say any extraordinary thing occured to me.

My chief employment was to cure my raisins,

and plant my barley and rice,

of both which I had a year's provision beforehand.

But though I was disapointed in my first canoe,

I made it,

at intermediate times,

my business to make a second,

of much inferior size;

and it was two-years before I had finished it.

But as I perceived it would no wife answer my design of failing to the other shore,

my thoughts were consigned to take a tour round the island,

to see what further discoveries I could make.

To this intent,

after having moved her to the water,

and tried how she would sail,

I fitted up a little raft to my boat,

and made a sail of the ships sail that by me.

I then made lockers or boxes at the end of it,

to put in necessaries,


and ammunition,

which would preserve them dry,

either from rain or the spray of the sea;

and in the inside of the boat,

I cut me a long hollow place to lay my gun in,

and to keep it dry made a flag to hang over it.

My umbrella I fixed in a step in the stern,

like a mast,

to keep the heat of the sun off me.

And now resolving to see the circumference of my little kingdom,

I victualled my ship for the voyage,

putting in two dozen of my barley-bread loaves,

an earthen pot-full of parched rice,

a little bottle of rum,

half a goat,

powder and shot,

and two watch coats.

It was the -6th- of November,

in the -6th- year of my reign,

or captivity,

that I set out in this voyage;

which was much longer than I expected,

being obliged to put further out,

by reason of the rocks that lay a great way in the sea.

And indeed so much did these rocks surprise me,

that I was for putting back,

fearing that if I ventured farther it would be out of my power to return in this uncertainty I came to an anchor just off shore,

to which I waded with my gun on my shoulder,

and then climbing up a hill,

which overlooked that point,

I saw the full extent of it,

and so resolved to run all hazards.

In this prospect from the hill,

I perceived a violent current running to the east,

coming very close to the point;

which I the more carefully observed,

thinking it dangerous,

and that when I came to it,

I might be drove into the sea by its force,

and not able to return to the island;

and certainly it must have been so,

had I not made this observation;

for on the other side was the like current,

with this difference,

that it set off at a greater distance;

and I perceived there was a strong eddy under the land;

so that my chief business was to work out of the first current,

and conveniently get into the eddy.

Two days I staid here,

the wind blowing very briskly E.S.E.

which being contrary to the current,

leaves a great breach of the sea upon the point;

so it was neither fit for me to keep too near the shore,

on account of the breach;

nor stand at too great a distance,

for fear of the streams.

That night the wind abating,

it grew so calm,

that I ventured out;

& here I may be a monument to all rash and ignorant pilots;

for I was no sooner come to the point and not above the boat's length from shore,

but I was going into a deep water,

with a current like a mill,

which drove my boat along so violently,

that it was impossible for me to keep near the edge of it,

but forced me more and more out from the eddy to the left of me;

and all I could do with my paddle were useless,

there being no wind to help me.

Now I began to look upon myself as quite lost,

since as,

the current ran on both sides of the island,

I was very certain they must join again,

and then I had no hope but of perishing for want in the sea,

after what provision I had was spent,

or before,

if a storm should happen to arise.

Who can conceive the present anguish of my mind at this calamity?

with longing eyes did I look upon my little kingdom,

and thought the island the pleasantest place in the universe.


thrice happy desert-,

said I,

-shall I never see thee more?- -Wretched creature!

wither am I going?

Why did I murmur at my lonesome condition,

when now I would give the whole world to be thither again?- While I was thus complaining,

I found myself to be driven about two leagues into the sea;


I laboured till my strength was far spent,

to keep my boat as far north as possibly I could,

to that side of the current where the eddy lay on.

About noon I perceived a little breeze of wind spring up from the S.S.E.

which overjoyed my heart;

and was still more elated,


in about half an hour it blew a gentle fine gale.

Had any thick weather sprung up,

I had been left another way;

for having no compass onboard,

I should never have found the way to steer towards the island,

if once it had disappeared;

but it proving the contrary,

I set up my mast again,

spread my sail,

and stood away northward,

as much as I could,

to get rid of the current.

And no sooner did the boat begin to stretch away,

but I perceived by the clearness of the water,

a change of the current was near;


where it was strong,

the water was foul;

and where it was clear the current abated.

To the east,

I soon saw about half a mile,

a breach of the sea upon,

some rocks,

which caused it again to separate;

and as the main force of it drove away more southwardly,

leaving the rocks to the north-east,

so the other came back by the repulse of the rocks making a sharp eddy,

which returned back again to the north-west with a very swift stream.

They who have experienced what it is to be reprieved upon the ladder,

or to be saved from thieves,

just going to take away their lives,

or such as have been in the like calamities with my own,

may guess my present excess of joy,

how heartily I ran my boat into the stream of this eddy,

and how joyfully I spread my sail to the refreshing wind,

standing cheerfully before it,

with a smart tide under foot.

By the assistance of this eddy,

I was carried above a league home again,

when being in the wake of the island,

betwixt the two currents,

I found the water to be in a sort of a stand.

About four o'clock in the afternoon,

I reached within a league of the island,

and perceived the points of the rock,

which caused this disaster,

stretching out,

as I observed before,

to the southward,

which throwing off the current more southwardly had occasioned another eddy to the north.

But having a fair brisk gale,

I stretched across this eddy,

and in an hour came within a mile of the shore,

where I soon landed to my unspeakable comfort;

and after an humble prostration,

thanking God for my deliverance,

with a resolution to lay all thoughts of escaping aside,

I brought my boat safe to a little cove,

and laid me down to take a welcome repose.

When I awoke I was considering how I might get my boat home;

and coasting along the shore,

I came to a good bay,

which ran up to a rivulet or brook,

where finding a safe harbour,

I stowed her as safe as if she had been in a dry-dock made on purpose for her.

I now perceived myself not far from the place where before I had travelled on foot;

so taking nothing with me except my gun and umbrella,

I began my journey,

and in the evening came to my bower,

where I again laid me down to rest.

I had not slept long before I was awakened in great surprise,

by a strange voice that called me several times.



Robinson Crusoe,

poor Robin!

Where are you,

Robinson Crusoe?

Where are you?

Where have you been-?

So fast was I asleep at first,

that I did not awake thoroughly: but half asleep and half awake,

I thought I dreamed that somebody spoke to me.


as the voice repeated -Robinson Crusoe- several times,

being terribly affrighted,

I started up in utmost confusion;


no sooner were my eyes fully open,

but I beheld my pretty Poll sitting on the top of the hedge,

and soon knew that it was he that called me;

for just in such bewailing language I used to talk and teach him;

which he so exactly learned that he would sit upon my finger and lay his bill close to my face,

and cry,

-Poor Robinson Crusoe,

where are you?

where have you been?

how came you here-?

and such like prattle I had constantly taught him.

But even though I knew it to be the parrot,

it was a great while before I could adjust myself;

being amazed how the creature got thither,

and that he should fix about that place;

and no where else.

But now being assured it could be no other than my honest Poll,

my wonder ceased,

and reaching out my hand,

and calling familiarly Poll,

the creature came to me,

and perched upon my thumb as he was wont,

constantly prating to me with -Poor Robinson Crusoe,

and how did I come here,

and where had I been?- as if the bird was overjoyed to see me;

and so I took him home along with me.

I was now pretty well cured of my rambling to sea;

yet I could wish my boat,

which had cost me so much trouble and pains,

on this side the island once more,

but which indeed was impracticable.

I therefore began to lead a very retired life,

living near a twelvemonth in a very contented manner,

wanting for nothing except conversation.

As to mechanic labours,

which my necessities obliged me to,

I fancied I could,

upon occasion,

make a tolerable carpenter were the poor tools I had to work withal but good.


as I improved in my earthen ware,

I contrived to make them with a wheel,

which I found much easier and better,

making my work shapely,

which before was rude and ugly.

But I think I was never so elevated with my own performance or project,

than for being able to make a tobacco-pipe,

which though it proved an awkward clumsy thing,

yet it was very sound,

and carried the smoke perfectly well,

to my great satisfaction.

I also improved my wicker ware,

making me abundance of necessary baskets,

which though not very handsome,

were very handy and convenient to fetch things home in,

as also for holding my stores,



and other provisions.

My powder beginning to fail,

made me examine after what manner I should kill the goats or birds to live on after it was all gone.

Upon which I contrived many ways to ensnare the goats,

and see if I could catch them alive,

particularly a she-goat with young.

At last I had my desire,

for making pitfalls and traps baited with barley and rice,

I found one morning,

in one of them,

an old he-goat,

and in the other three kids,

one male,

the other two females.

So boisterous was the old one,

that I could not bring him away.

But I forgot the old proverb,

-That hunger will tame a lion-: For had I kept him three or four days without provisions,

and then given him some water,

with a little corn,

he would have been as tame as a young kid.

The other creatures I bound with strings together;

but I had great difficulty before I could bring them to my habitation.

It was some time before they would feed;

but throwing them sweet corn it so much tempted them,

that they began to be tamer.

From hence I concluded,

that if I designed to furnish myself with goat's flesh,

when my ammunition was spent,

the tamely breeding them up,

like a flock of sheep,

about my settlement,

was the only method I could take.

I concluded also I must separate the wild from the tame,

or else they would always run wild as they grew up;

and the best way for this,

was to have some inclosed piece of ground,

well fenced,

either with a hedge or pale,

to keep them so effectually,

that those within might not break out,

or those without break in.

Such an undertaking was very great for one pair of hands;

but as there was an absolute necessity for doing it,

my first care was to find a convenient piece of ground where there was likely to be herbage for them to eat,

water to drink,

and cover to keep them from the sun.

Here again,

I gave another instance of my ignorance and inexperience,

pitching upon a piece of meadow land so large,

that had I inclosed it,

the hedge or pale must have been at least two miles about.

Indeed had it been ten miles,

I had time enough to do it in;

but then I did not consider that my goats would be as wild in so much compass,

as if they had had the whole island,

and consequently as difficult for me to catch them.

This thought came into my head,

after I had carried it on,

I believe,

about fifty yards;

I therefore altered my scheme,

and resolved to inclose a piece of ground about one hundred and fifty yards in length,

and one hundred in breadth,

sufficient enough for as many as would maintain me,

till such time as my flock increased,

and then I could add more ground.

I now vigorously prosecuted my work,

and it took me about three months in hedging the first piece;

in which time I tethered the three kids in the best part of it,

feeding them as near me as possible,

to make them familiar: and indeed I very often would carry some ears of barley or a handful of rice,

and feed them out of my hands;

by which they grew so tame,

that when my inclosure was finished,

and I had let them loose they would run after me for a handful of corn.

This indeed answered my end;

and in a year and half's time I had a flock of about twelve goats,

kids and all;

and in two years after,

they amounted to forty-three,

besides what I had taken and killed for my sustenance.

After which I inclosed five several pieces of ground to feed them in,

with pens to drive them into,

that I might take them as I had occasion.

In this project I likewise found additional blessings;

for I not only had plenty of goat's flesh,

but milk too,

which in my beginning I did not so much as think of.



though I had never milked a cow,

much less a goat,

or seen butter or cheese made,


after some essays and miscarriages,

I made the both,

and never afterwards wanted.

How mercifully can the omnipotent Power comfort his creatures,

even in the midst of their greatest calamities?

How can be sweeten the bitterest providences,

and give us reason to magnify him in dungeons and prisons?

what a bounteous table was here spread in a wilderness for me,

where I expected nothing thing at first but to perish for hunger.

Certainly a Stoic would have smiled to see me at dinner.

There sat my royal majesty,

and absolute prince and ruler of my kingdom,

attended by my dutiful subjects,


if I pleased,

I could either hang,



give them liberty,

or take it away.

When I dined,

I seemed a king eating alone,

none daring to presume to do so till I had done.


as if he had been my principal court favorite,

was the only person,

permitted to talk with me.

My old but faithful dog,

now grown exceedingly crazy,

and who had no species to multiply his kind upon,

continually sat on my right hand;

while my two cats sat on each side of the table,

expecting a bit from my hand,

as a principal mark of my royal favour.

These were not the cats I had brought from the ship;

they had been dead long before,

and interred near my habitation by mine own hand.

But one of them,

as I suppose,

generating with a wild cat,

a couple of their young I had made tame;

the rest ran wild into the woods,

and in time grew so impudent as to return and plunder me of my stores,

till such time as I shot a great many,

and the rest left me without troubling me any more.

In this plentiful manner did I live,

wanting for nothing but conversation.

One thing indeed concerned me,

the want of my boat;

I knew not which way to get her round the island.

One time I resolved to go along the shore by land to her;

but had any one in England met such a figure,

it would either have affrighted them,

or made them burst into laughter;


I could not but smile myself at my habit,

which I think in this place will be very proper to describe.

The cap I wore on my head,

was great,


and shapeless,

made of a goat's skin,

with a flap of pent-house hanging down behind,

not only to keep the sun from me,

but to shoot the rain off from running into my neck,

nothing being more pernicious than the rain falling upon the flesh in these climates.

I had a short jacket of goat's skin,

whose hair hung down such a length on each side,

that it reached down to the calves of my legs.

As for shoes and stockings,

I had none,

but made a semblance of something,

I know not what to call them;

they were made like buskins,

and laced on the sides like spatterdashes,

Barbarously shaped like the rest of my habit.

I had a broad belt of goat's skin dried,

girt round me with a couple of thongs,

instead of buckles;

on each of which,

to supply the deficiency of sword and dagger,

hung my hatchet and saw.

I had another belt,

not so broad,

yet fastened in the same manner,

which hung over my shoulder,

and at the end of it,

under my left arm,

hung two pouches,

made of goat's skin,

to hold my powder and shot.

My basket I carried on my back,

and my gun on my shoulder;

and over my head a great clumsy ugly goat's skin umbrella;



next to my gun,

was the most necessary thing about me.

As for my face,

the colour was not so swarthy as the Mulattoes,

or might have been expected from one who took to little care of it,

in a climate within nine or ten degrees of the equinox.

At one time my beard grew so long that it hung down about a quarter of a yard;

but as I had both razors scissors in store,

I cut it all off,

and suffered none to grow,

except a large pair of Mahometan whiskers,

the like of which I had seen wore by some Turks at Sallee,

not long enough indeed to hang a hat upon,

but of such a monstrous size,

as would have amazed any in England to have seen.

But all this was of no consequence here,

there being none to observe my behavior or habit.

And so,

without fear and without controul,

I proceeded on my journey,

the prosecution of which took me up five or six days.

I first travelled along the sea shore,

directly to the place where I first brought my boat to an anchor,

to get upon the rocks;

but now having no boat to take care of,

I went overland a nearer way to the same height that I was before upon;

when looking forward to the point of the rock,

which lay out,

and which I was forced to double with my boat,

I was amazed to see the sea so smooth and quiet,

there being no ripling motion,

nor current,

any more than in other places.

This made me ponder some time to guess the reason of it,

when at last I was convinced that the ebb setting from the west,

and joining with the current of water from some great river on shore,

must be the occasion of these rapid streams;

& that,


as the winds blew more westwardly,

or more southwardly,

so the current came he nearer,

or went the farther from the shore.

To satisfy my curiosity,

I waited there till evening,

when the time of ebb being made,

I plainly perceived from the rock the current again as before,

with the difference that it ran farther off,

near half a league from the shore,

whereas in my expedition,

it set close upon it,

furiously hurrying me and my canoe along with it,

which at another time would not have done.

And now I was convinced,


by observing the ebbing and flowing of the tide I might easily bring my boat round the island again.

But when I began to think of putting it in practice,

the remembrance of the late danger,

struck me with such horror,

that I changed my resolution,

and formed another,

which was more safe,

though more laborious;

and this was to make another canoe,

and to have one for one side of the island,

and one for the other.

I had now two plantations in the island;

the first my little fortification,


or castle,

with many large and spacious improvements;

for by this time I had enlarged the cave behind me with several little caves,

one with another,

to hold my baskets,


and straw.

The piles with which I made my wall were grown so lofty and great as obscured my habitation.

And near this commodious and pleasant settlement,

lay my well cultivated and improved corn-fields,

which kindly yielded me their fruit in the proper season.

My second plantation was that near my country seat,

or little bower,

where my grapes flourished,

and where,

having planted many stakes,

I made inclosures for my goats,

so strongly fortified by labour and time,

that it was much stronger than a wall,

and consequently impossible for them to break through.

As for my bower itself,

I kept it constantly in repair,

and cut the trees in such a manner,

as made them grow thick and wild,

and form a most delightful shade.

In the centre of this stood my tent,

thus erected.

I had driven four piles in the ground,

spreading over it a piece of the ship's sail;

beneath which I made a sort of couch with the skins of the creatures I had slain,

and other things;

and having laid thereon one of the sailor's blankets,

which I had saved from the wreck of the ship,

and covering myself with a great watch-coat,

I took up this place for my country retreat.

Very frequently from this settlement did I use to visit my boat,

and keep her in very good order.

And sometimes I would venture in her a cast or two from shore,

but no further,

lest either a strong current,

a sudden stormy wind,

or some unlucky accident should hurry me from the island as before.

But now I entreat your attention,

whilst I proceed to inform you of a new,

but most surprising scent of life which there befel me.

You may easily suppose,


after having been here so long,

nothing could be more amazing than to see a human creature.

One day it happened,

that going to my boat I saw the print of a man's naked foot on the shore,

very evident on the sand,

as the toes,


and every part of it.

Had I seen an apparition in the most frightful shape,

I could not have been more confounded.

My willing ears gave the strictest attention.

I cast my eyes around,

but could satisfy neither the one nor the other,

I proceeded alternately in every part of the shore,

but with equal effect;

neither could I see any other mark,

though the sand about it was as susceptible to take impression,

as that which was so plainly stamped.

Thus struck with confusion and horror,

I returned to my habitation,

frightened at every bush and tree,

taking every thing for men;

and possessed with the wildest ideas.

That night my eyes never closed.

I formed nothing but the most dismal imaginations,

concluding it must be the mark of the devil's foot which I had seen.

For otherwise how could any mortal come to this island?

where was the ship that transported them?

& what signs of any other footsteps?

Though these seemed very strong reasons for such a supposition,

yet (thought I) why should the devil make the print of his foot to no purpose,

as I can see,

when he might have taken other ways to have terrified me?

why should he leave his mark on the other side of the island,

and that too on the sand,

where the surging waves of the ocean might soon have erased the impression.

Surely this action is not consistent with the subtility of Satan,

said I to myself;

but rather must be some dangerous creature,

some wild savage of the main land over against me,

that venturing too far in the ocean,

has been driven here,

either by the violent currents or contrary winds;

and not caring to stay on this desolate island,

has gone back to sea again.

[Illustration: Robinson Crusoe struck with confusion and horror,

at seeing the print of a man's foot upon the sand -Dr. & Eng.

by A. Carse,




said I to myself,

that none of the savages had seen me in that place: yet I was not altogether without fear,


having found my boar,

they should return in numbers and devour me;

or at least carry away all my corn,

and destroy my flock of tame goats.

In a word,

all my religious hopes vanished,

as though I thought God would not now protect me by his power,

who had so wonderfully preserved me so long.

What various chains of Providence are there in the life of man!

How changeable are our affections,

according to different circumstances!

We love to-day,

what we hate to-morrow;

we shun one hour,

what we seek the next.

This was evident in me in the most conspicous manner: For I,

who before had so much lamented my condition,

in being banished from all human kind,

was now even ready to expire,

when I considered that a man had set his foot on this desolate island.

But when I considered my station of life decreed by the infinitely wise and good providence of God,

that I ought not to dispute my Creator's sovereignty,

who has an unbounded right to govern and dispose of his creatures as he thinks convenient;

and that his justice and mercy could either punish or deliver me: I say when I considered all this,

I comfortably found it my duty to trust sincerely in him,

pray ardently to him,

and humbly resign myself to his divine will.

One morning,

lying on my bed,

these words of the sacred writings came into my mind,

-Call upon me in the day of trouble,

and I will deliver thee,

and thou shalt glorify me.- Upon this sentence,

rising more cheerfully from my bed,

I offered up my prayers in the most heavenly manner;

and when I had done,

taking up my Bible to read,

these words appeared first in my sight: ---Wait on the Lord,

and be of good cheer,

and he shall strengthen thy heart: Wait,

I say,

on the Lord.- Such divine comfort did this give me,

as to remove all cause of sadness upon that occasion.


after a world of apprehensions and fears,

for three days and nights,

I at last ventured out of my castle,

and milked my goats,

one of which was almost spoiled for want of it.

I next (though in great fear) visited my bower,

and milked my flocks there also;


growing bolder,

I went down to the shore again,

and measuring the print of the foot to mine,

to see,


whether I myself had not occasioned that mark,

I found it much superior in largeness;

and so returned home,

now absolutely convinced that either some men had been ashore,

or that the island must be inhabited,

and therefore that I might be surprised before I was aware.

I now began to think of providing for my security,

and resolved in my mind many different schemes for that purpose.

I first proposed to cut down my inclosures;

and turn my tame cattle wild into the woods that the enemy might not find them,

and frequent the island in hopes of killing the same.


I was for digging up my corn fields for the very same reason.



I concluded to demolish my bower,


seeing a place of human contrivance,

they might come farther and find out and attack me in my little castle.

Such notions did the fear of danger suggest to me;

and I looked I thought like the unfortunate king Saul,

when not only oppressed by the Philistines,

but also forsaken by God himself.


it is strange,

that a little before,

having entirely resigned myself to the will of God,

I should now have little confidence in him,

fearing those more who could kill this fading body,

than him who could destroy my immortal soul.

Sleep was an utter stranger to my eyes that night: yet nature,

spent and tired,

submitted to a silent repose the next morning,

and then joining reason with fear,

I considered that this delightful and pleasant island might not be to entirely forsaken as I might think;

but that the inhabitants from the other shore might fail,

either with design or from necessity,

by cross winds;

and if the latter circumstance.

I had reason to believe they would depart the first opportunity.


my fear made me think of a place for retreat upon an attack.

I now repented that I had made my door to come out beyond my fortification;

to remedy which,

I resolved to make me a second one: I fell to work,


and drove betwixt that double row of trees,

which I planted above twelve years before,

several strong piles,

thickening it with pieces of timber and old cables,

and strengthening the foot of it with earth which I dug out of my cave;

I also made me seven holes,

wherein I planted my muskets like cannon,

fitting them into frames resembling carriages.

This being finished with indefatigable industry,

for a great way every where,

I planted sticks of osier like a wood,

about twenty thousand of them,

leaving a large space between them and my wall,

that I might have room to see an enemy,

and that they might not be sheltered among the young trees,

if they offered to approach the outer wall.



scarce two years had passed over my head,

when there appeared a lovely shady grove,

and in six years it became a thick wood perfectly impassable.

For my safety,

I left no avenue to go in or out: instead of which I set two ladders,

one to a part of a rock which was low,

and then broke in,

leaving room to place another ladder upon that;

so that when I took these down,

it was impossible for any man to descend without hurting himself;

and if they had,

they would still be at the outside of my outer wall.

But while I took all these measures of human prudence for my own preservation I was not altogether unmindful of other affairs.

To preserve my stock of tame goats,

that the enemy should not take all at once,

I looked out for the most retired part of the island,

which was the place where I had lost myself before-mentioned;

and there finding a clear piece of land,

containing three acres,

surrounded with thick woods,

I wrought so hard,

that in less than a month's time,

I fenced it so well round,

that my flocks were very well secured in it,

and I put therein two he-goats and ten she ones.

All this labour was occasioned purely by fearful apprehensions,

on account of seeing the print of a man's foot.

And not contented yet with what I had done,

I searched for another place towards the west point of the island,

where I might also retain another flock.

Then wandering on this errand more to the west of the island than ever I had yet done,

and casting my eyes towards the sea,

methought I perceived a boat at a great distance;

but could not possibly tell what it was for want of my perspective glass.

I considered then it was no strange thing to see the print of a man's foot;

and concluding them cannibals,

blessed God for being cast on the other side of the island,

where none of the savages,

as I thought,

ever came.

But when I came down the hill to the shore,

which was the S.W.

point of the island,

I was soon confirmed in my opinion;

nor can any one describe my horror and amazement,

when I saw the ground spread with sculls,



and bones of human bodies;

and particularly,

I perceived a space like a circle,

in the midst of which had been a fire,

about which I conjectured these wretches sat,

and unnaturally sacrificed and devoured their fellow creatures.

The horror and loathsomeness of this dreadful spectacle,

both confounded my senses,

and made me discharge from my stomach in an excessive manner.

I then returned towards my habitation;


in my way thither,

shedding floods of tears,

and falling down on my bended knees,

gave God thanks for making my nature contrary to these wretches,

and delivering me so long out of their hands.

Though reason and my long residence here had assured me,

that these savages never came up to the thick woody parts of the country,

and that I had no reason to be apprehensive of a discovery;

yet such an abhorence did I still retain,


for two years after,

I confined myself only to my three plantation: I mean my castle,


and inclosure in the woods.

And though in process of time,

my dreadful apprehensions began to wear away,

yet my eyes were more vigilant for fear of being heard by those creatures,

they should proceed to attack me.

I resolved,


manfully to lose my life if they did,

and went armed with three pistols stuck in my girdle,

which added to the description I have given of myself before,

made me look with a very formidable appearance.

Thus my circumstances for some time remained very calm and undisturbed;

and when I compared my condition to others,

I found it far from being miserable.



would all persons compare their circumstances,

not with those above them,

but with those innumerable unhappy objects beneath them,

I am sure we should not hear these daily murmurings and complainings that are in the world.

For my part,

I wanted but few things.


the terror which the savages had put me in,

spoiled some inventions for my own conveniences.

One of my projects was to brew me some beer;

a very whimsical one indeed,

when it is considered that I had neither casks sufficient;

nor could I make any to preserve it in;

neither had I hops to make it keep,

yest to make it work,

nor a copper or kettle to make it boil.



after some years,

I might bring this to bear,

as I had done other things.

But now my inventions were placed another way;

and day and night I could think of nothing but how I might destroy some of these cannibals,

when proceeding to their bloody entertainments;

and so saving a victim from being sacrificed,

that he might after become my servant.

Many were my contrivances after this purpose,

and as many more objections occurred after I hatched them.

I once contrived to dig a hole under the place where they made their fire,

and put therein five or six pounds of gunpowder,

which would consequently blow up all those that were near it: but then I was loth to spend so much upon them,

lest it should not do that certain execution I could desire,

& but only affright & not kill them.

Having laid this design aside,

I again proposed to myself to lie privately in ambush,

in some convenient place,

with my three guns double loaded,

and let fly at them in the midst of their dreadful ceremony: and having killed two or three of them at every shot,

fall upon the rest suddenly with my three pistols,

& not let one mother's son escape.

Thus imagination pleased my fancy so much that I used to dream of it in the night time.

To put my design in execution,

I was not long in seeking for a place convenient for my purpose,

where unseen I might behold every action of the savages.

Here I placed my two muskets,

each of which was loaded with a brace of slugs,

and four or five smaller bullets about the size of pistol bullets;

the fowling-piece was charged with near a handful of the largest swan-shot,

and in every pistol were about four bullets.

And thus all things being prepared,

no sooner would the welcome light spread over the element,


-like a giant refreshed with wine-,

as the Scripture has it,

would I issue forth from my castle,

and from a lofty hill,

three miles distant,

view if I could see any invaders approach unlawfully to my kingdom.

But having waited in vain two or three months,

it not only grew very tiresome to me,

but brought me to some consideration,

and made me examine myself,

what right I had to kill these creatures in this manner.

If (argued I to myself) this unnatural custom of theirs be a sin offensive to Heaven,

it belongs to the Divine Being,

who alone has the vindictive power in his hands,

to shower down his vengeance upon them.

And perhaps he does so,

in making them become one another's executioners.


if not,

if God thinks these doings just,

according to the knowledge they conceive,

what authority have I to pretend to thwart the decrees of Providence,

which has permitted these actions for so many ages,

perhaps from almost the beginning of the creation?

They never offended me,

what right have I then to concern myself in their shedding one another's blood: And,


I have since known,

they value no more to kill and devour a captive taken in war,

than we do to kill an ox or eat mutton.

I then concluded it necessarily followed,

that these people were no more murderers than Christians,

who many times put whole troops to the sword,

after throwing down their arms.

--Again I considered,

that if I fell upon them,

I should be as much in the wrong as the Spaniards,

who had committed the greatest barbarities upon these people who had never offended them in their whole lives;

as if the kingdom of Spain was eminent for a race of men without common compassion to the miserable,

a principal sign of the most generous temper: these considerations made me pause,

and made me think I had taken wrong measures in my resolution: I now argued with myself,

it was better for me never to attack,

but to remain undiscovered as long as I possibly could;

that an opposite conduct would certainly prove destructive;

for as it was scarcely to be supposed I could kill them all,

I might either be overpowered by the remaining,

or that some escaping,

might bring thousands to my certain destruction.



religion took their part so much as to convince me how contrary it was to my duty to be guilty of shedding human blood,

innocent as to my particular,

whatever they are to one another: that I had nothing to do with it,

but leave it to the God of all power and dominion,

as I said before,

to do therein what seemed convenient to his heavenly wisdom.



on my knees I thanked the Almighty for delivering me from blood guiltiness,

and begged his protection that I might never fall into their hands.

Thus giving over an attempt which I had rashly begun,

I never ascended the hill on that occasion afterwards: I only re-removed my boat,

which lay on the other side of the island,

and every thing that belonged to her,

towards the east,

into a little cove;

that there might not be the least shadow of any boat near,

or habitation upon the island.

--My castle then became my cell,

keeping always retired in it,

except when I went out to milk my she-goats,

and order my little flock in the wood,

which was quite out of danger: for sure I was that these savages never came here with expectations to find any thing,

consequently never wandered from the coast;


as they might have several times been on shore,

as well before as after my dreadful apprehensions,

I looked back with horror to think in what state I might have been,

had I suddenly met them slenderly armed;

with one gun only loaded with small shot;

and how great would have been my amazement,


instead of seeing the print of one man's foot,

I had perceived fifteen,

or twenty savages,

who having once set their eyes upon me,

by the swiftness of their feet would have left me no possibility of escaping?

These thoughts would sink my very soul,

so that I would fall into a deep melancholy,

till such time as the consideration of my gratitude to the Divine Being moved it from my heart.

I then fell into a contemplation of the secret springs of Providence,

and how wonderfully we are delivered,

when insensible of it;

and when intricated in uncertain mazes or labyrinths of doubt or hesitation,

what secret hint directs us in the right way,

when we intended to go out of it,


perhaps contrary to our business,

sense or inclination.

Upon which,

I fixed within me this as a certain rule,

never to disobey those secret impressions of the mind,

to the acting or not acting any thing that offered,

for which I yet could assign no reason.

But let it be how it will,

the advantage of this conduct very eminently appeared in the latter part of my abode on this island;

I am,

a stranger in determining whence these secret intimations of Providence derive;

yet methinks they are not only some proof of the converse of spirits,

but also of the secret communications they are supposed to have with those that have not passed through the gloomy vale of death.

These anxieties of mind,

and the care of my preservation,

put a period to all future inventions and contrivances,

either for accommodation or convenience.

I now cared not to drive a nail,

chop a stick,

fire a gun or make a fire,

lest either the noise should be heard,

or the smoke discover me.

And on this account I used to burn my earthen ware privately in a cave which I found in the wood,

and which I made convenient for that purpose;

the principal cause that brought me here was to make charcoal,

so that I might bake and dress my bread and meat without any danger.

At that time a curious accident happened me,

which I shall now relate.

While I was cutting down some wood for making my charcoal,

I perceived a cavity behind a very thick branch of underwood.

Curious to look into it,

I attained its month,

and perceived it sufficient for me to stand upright in.

But when I had entered,

and took a further view,

two rolling shining eyes like flaming stars seemed to dart themselves at me;

so that I made all the haste out that I could,

as not knowing whither it was the devil or a monster that had taken his residence in that place.

When I recovered a little from my surprise,

I called myself a thousand fools,

for being afraid to see the devil one moment,

who had now lived almost twenty years in the most retired solitude.

And therefore resuming all the courage I had,

I took a flaming firebrand,

and in I rushed again.

I had not proceeded above three steps,

when I was more affrighted than before;

for then I heard a very loud sigh,

like that of a human creature in the greatest agony,

succeeded with a broken noise,

resembling words half expressed,

and then a broken sigh again.

Stepping back,

-Lord!- (thought I to myself) -where am I got,

into what enchanted place have I plunged myself,

such as are reported to contain miserable captives,

till death puts an end to their sorrow-?



in such great amazement was I,

that it struck me into a cold sweat;

and had my hat been on my head,

I believe my hair would have moved it off.

But again encouraging myself with the hopes of God's protection,

I proceeded forward,


by the light of my firebrand,

perceived it to be a monstrous he-goat,

lying on the ground,

gasping for life,

and dying of mere old age.

At first,

I stirred him,

thinking to drive him out,

but the poor ancient creature strove to get upon his feet,

but was not able;

so I e'en let him lie still to affright the savages,

should they venture into this cave.

I now looked round me and found the place but small and shapeless.

At the farther side of it,

I perceived a sort of an entrance,

yet so low,

as must oblige me to creep upon my hands and knees to it;


having no candle,

I suspended my enterprise till the next day,

and then I came provided with two large ones of my own making.

Having crept upon my hands and feet,

through this strait,

I found the roof higher up,

I think about twenty feet.

But surely mortal never saw such a glorious sight before!

The roof and walls of this cave reflected a hundred thousand lights to me from my two candles,

as though they were indented with mining gold,

precious stones,

or sparkling diamonds.

And indeed it was the most delightful cavity or grotto of its kind that could be desired,

though entirely dark.

The floor was dry and level,

and had a kind of gravel upon it: no nauseous venomous creatures to be seen there,

neither any damp or wet about it.

I could find no fault but in the entrance,

and I began to think that even this might be very necessary for my defence,

and therefore resolved to make it my most principal magazine.

I brought hither two fowling-pieces,

and three muskets,

leaving only five pieces at my castle,

planted in the nature of cannon.

Of the barrel of gunpowder,

which I took up out of the sea,

I brought away about sixty pounds powder,

which was not damaged,

and this with a great quantity of lead for bullets,

I removed for my castle to this retreat,

now fortified both by art and nature.

I fancied myself now like one of the giants of old,

who were said to live in caves and holes among the rocks,

inaccessible to any but themselves,


at lest,

a most dangerous to attempt.

And now I despised both the cunning and strength of the savages,

either to find me out or to hurt me.

But I must not forget the old goat,

which caused my late dreadful amazement.

The poor creature gave up the ghost the day after my discovery;

& it being difficult to drag him out,

I dug his gave,

and honourably entombed him in the same place where is departed,

with as much ceremony as any Welch goat that has been interred about the high mountain Penmanmawn.

I think I was now in the twenty-third year of my reign,

and my thoughts much easier than formerly,

having contrived several pretty amusements and diversions to pass away the time in a pleasant manner.

By this time my pretty Poll had learned to speak English,

and pronounce his words very articulately and plain;

so that for many hours we used to chat together after a familiar manner,

and he lived with me no less than twenty-six years.

My dog which was nineteen years old,

sixteen of which he lived with me,

died some time ago of mere old age.

As for my cats,

they multiplied so fast,

that I was forced to kill or drive them into the woods,

except two or three which became my particular favourites.

Besides these,

I continually kept two or three household kids about me,

which I learned to feed out of my hand,

and two more parrots which could talk indifferently,

and call -Robinson Crusoe-,

but not so excellently as the first,

as not taking that pains with them.

I had also several sea-owls which I had wounded and cut their wings;

and growing tame,

they used to breed among the low trees about my castle walls,

all which made my abode very agreeable.

But what unforeseen events suddenly destroy the enjoyment,

of this uncertain state of life,

when we least expect them!

it was now the month of December,

in the southern solstice,

and particular time of my harvest,

which required my attendance in the fields;

when going out pretty early one morning,

before it was day-light,

there appeared to me,

from the sea shore,

a flaming light,

about two miles from me at the east end of the island,

where I had observed some savages had been before,

not on the other side,

but to my great affliction,

it was on my side the island.

Struck with a terrible surprise,

and my usual apprehensions,

that the savages would perceive my improvements,

I returned directly to my castle,

pulled the ladder after me,

making all things look as wild and natural as I possibly could.

In the next place,

I put myself into a posture of defence,

loading my mussels and pistols,

and committing myself to God's protection,

I resolved to defend myself till my last breath.

Two hours after,

impatient for intelligence,

I set my ladder up to the side of the hill,

where there was a flat place,

and then pulling the ladder after me ascended to the top,

where laying myself on my belly,

with my perspective glass,

I perceived no less than nine naked savages,

sitting round a small fire,


as I supposed human flesh,

with their two canoes haled on shore,

waiting for the flood to carry them off again.

You cannot easily express the consternation I was in at this sight,

especially seeing them near me;

but when I perceived their coming must be always with the current of the ebb,

I became more easy in my thoughts,

being fully convinced that I might go abroad with security all the time of flood,

if they were not before landed.



this proved just as I imagined;

for no sooner did they all take boat and paddle away,

but the tide made N.W.

Before they went off they danced,

making ridiculous postures and gestures for above an hour,

all stark naked;

but whether men or women,

or both,

I could not perceive.

When I saw them gone,

I took two guns upon my shoulders,

and placing a couple of pistols in my belt,

with my great sword hanging by my side,

I went to the hill,

where at first I made a discovery of these cannibals,

and then saw there had been three canoes more of the savages on shore at that place,

which with the rest were making over to the main land.

But nothing could be more horrid to me,

when going to the place of sacrifice,

the blood,

the bones,

and other mangled parts of human bodies appeared in my sight;

and so fired was I with indignation,

that I was fully resolved to be revenged on the first that came there,

though I lost my life in the execution.

It then appeared to me,

that the visits which they make to this island are not very frequent,

it being fifteen months before they came again;

but still I was very uneasy,

by reason of the dismal apprehensions of their surprising me unawares;

nor dared I offer to fire a gun on that side of the island where they used to appear,


taking the alarm,

the savages might return with many hundred canoes,

and then God knows in what manner I should have made my end.

Thus was I a year or more before I saw any of these devouring cannibals again.

But to wave this,

the following accident,

which demands attention,

for a while eluded the force of my thoughts in revenging myself on those Heathens.

On the 16th of May (according to my wooden calendar) the wind blew exceedingly hard,

accompanied with abundance of lightning and thunder all day,

and succeeded by a very stormy night.

The seeming anger of the Heavens made me have recourse to my Bible.

While I was seriously pondering upon it,

I was suddenly alarmed with the noise of a gun,

which I conjectured was fired upon the ocean.

Such an unusual surprise made me start up in a minute,


with my ladder,

ascending the mountain as before,

that very moment a flash of fire presaged the report of another gun which I presently heard,

and found it was from that part of the sea where the current drove me away.

I could not but then think,

that this must be a ship in distress,

and that there were the melancholy signals for a speedy deliverance.



was my sorrow upon this occasion;

but my labours to assist them must have proved altogether vain & fruitless.


I brought together all the dry wood that was at hand,

and making a pretty large pile,

set it on fire on the hill.

I was certain they plainly perceived it,

by their firing another gun as soon as it began to blaze,

and after that several more from the same quarter.

All night long I kept up my fire: and when the air cleared up,

I perceived something a great way at sea,

directly E. but could not distinguish what it was,

even with my glass,

by reason that the weather was so very foggy out at sea.


keeping my eyes directly fixed upon it,

and perceiving it did not stir,

I presently concluded it must be a ship at anchor,

and so very hasty I was to be satisfied,

that taking the gun,

I went to the S.E.

part of the island,

to the same rocks where I had been formerly drove away by the current,

in which time the weather being perfectly cleared up,

to my great sorrow,

I perceived the wreck of a ship cast away upon those hidden rocks I found when I was out with my boat;

and which,

by making a kind of an eddy,

were the occasion of my preservation.


-what is one man's safety is another's ruin-;

for undoubtedly this ship had been driven on them in the night,

the wind blowing strong at E.N.E.

Had they perceived the island,

as I now guessed they had not,


instead of firing there guns for help,

they would rather have ventured in their boat and saved themselves that way.

I then thought,

that perhaps they had done so,

upon seeing my fire,

and were cast away in the attempt: for I perceived no boat in the ship.

But then I again imagined,



they had another vessel in company,


upon signal,

saved their lives,

and took the boat up: or that the boat might be driven into the main ocean,

where these poor creatures might be in the most miserable condition.

But as all these conjectures were very uncertain,

I could do no more than commiserate there distress,

and thank God for delivering me,

in particular,

when so many perished in the raging ocean.

When I considered seriously every thing concerning this wreck,

and could perceive no room to suppose any of them saved,

I cannot explain,

by any possible force of words,

what longings my soul felt on this occasion,

often breaking out in this manner: -O that there had been but two or three,

nay even one person saved,

that we might have lived together,

conversed with,

and comforted one another!- and so much were my desires moved,

that when I repeated these words,


that there had been but one!- my hands would clench together,

and my fingers press the palms of my hands to close,


had any soft thing been between,

it would have crushed it involuntarily,

while my teeth would strike together,

and set against each other so strong that it required some time for me to part them.

Till the last year of my being on this island,

I never knew whether or not any had been saved out of this ship.

I had the affliction,

some time after,

to see the corpse of a drowned boy come on shore,

at the end of the island which was next the shipwreck;

there was nothing on him but a seaman's waistcoat,

a pair of opened kneed linen drawers,

and a blue linen shirt,

but no particular mark to guess what nation he was of.

In his pocket were two pieces of eight,

and a tobacco-pipe,

the last of which I preferred much more than I did the first.

And now the calmness of the sea tempted me to venture out in my boat to this wreck,

not only to get something necessary out of the ship,

but perhaps,

some living creature might be on board,

whose life I might preserve.

This had such an influence upon my mind,

that immediately I went home,

and prepared every thing necessary for the voyage,

carrying on board my boat provisions of all sorts,

with a good quantity of rum,

fresh water,

and a compass: so putting off,

I paddled the canoe along the shore,

till I came at last to the north-east part of the island,

from whence I was to launch into the ocean;

but here the currents ran so violently,

and appeared so terrible,

that my heart began to fail me;

foreseeing that if I was driven into any of these currents,

I might be carried not only out of reach or sight of the island,

but even inevitably lost in the boiling surges of the ocean.

So oppressed was I at these troubles,

that I gave over my enterprize,

sailing to a little creek on the shore,

where stepping out,

I set me down on a rising hill,

very pensive and thoughtful.

I then perceived that the tide was turned;

and the flood came on,

which made it impracticable for me to go out for so many hours.

To be more certain how the sets of the tides or currents lay when the flood came in,

I ascended a higher piece of ground,

which overlooked the sea both ways;

and here I found that as the current of the ebb set out close by the south point of the island,

so the current of the flood set in close by the shore of the north side;

and all that I had to do was to keep to the north of the island in my return.

That night I reposed myself in my canoe,

covered with my watch coat,

instead of a blanket,

the heavens being my tester.

I set out with the first of the tide full north,

till I felt the benefit of the current,

which carried me at a great rate eastward,

yet not with such impetuosity as before,

as to take from me all government of my canoe;

so that in two hours time I came up to the wreck,

which appeared to me a most melancholy sight.

It seemed to be a Spanish vessel by its building,

stuck fast between two rocks;

her stern and quarter beaten to pieces by the sea;

her mainmast and foremast were brought off by the board,

that is broken off short.

As I approached near,

I perceived a dog on board,

who seeing me coming,

yelped and cried,

and no sooner did I call him,

but the poor creature jumped into the sea,

out of which I took him up,

almost famished with hunger and thirst;

so that when I gave him a cake of bread,

no ravenous wolf could devour it more greedily;

and he drank to that degree of fresh water,

that he would have burst himself,

had I suffered him.

The first sight I met with in the ship,

were two men drowned in the cook-room or forecastle,

inclosed in one another's arms: hence I very probably supposed,

that -when the vessel struck in the storm,

so high and incessantly did the waters break in and over her,

that the men not being able to bear it,

were strangled by the constant rushing in of the waves-.

There were several casks of liquor,

whether wine of brandy,

I could not be positive,

which lay in the lower hold,

as were plainly perceptible by the ebbing out of the water,

yet were too large for me to pretend to meddle with;

likewise I perceived several chests,

which I supposed to belong to the seamen,

two of which I got into my boat,

without examining what was in them.

Had the stern of the ship been fixed,

and the forepart broken off,

I should have made a very prosperous voyage;

since by what I after found in these two chests,

I could not otherwise conclude,

but that the ship must have abundance of wealth on board;


if I must guess by the course she steered,

she must have been bound from the Buenos Ayres,

or the Rio de la Plata,

in the southern parts of America,

beyond the Brazils,

to the Havannah,

in the gulf of Mexico,

and so perhaps to Spain.

What became of the rest of the sailors,

I could not certainly tell;

and all her riches signified nothing at that time to any body.

Searching farther,

I found a cask containing about twenty gallons,

full of liquor,


with some labour,

I got into my boat;

in her cabin were several muskets,

which I let remain there;

but took away with me a great powder horn,

with about four pounds of powder in it.

I took also a fire-shovel and tongs,

two brass kettles,

a copper pot to make chocolate,

and a gridiron;

all which were extremely necessary to me,

especially the fire-shovel and tongs.

And so with this cargo,

accompanied with my dog,

I came away,

the tide serving for that purpose;

and the same evening,

about an hour within night,

I attained the island,

after the greatest toil and fatigue imaginable.

That night I reposed my wearied limbs in the boat,

resolving the next morning to harbour what I had gotten in my new-found subterraneous grotto;

& not to carry my cargo home to my ancient castle.

Having refreshed myself,

and got all my effects on shore I next proceeded to examine the particulars;

and so tapping the cask,

I found the liquor to be a kind of rum,

but not like what we had at the Brazils,

non indeed near so good.

At the opening of the chest,

several things appeared very useful to me;

for instance,

I found in one a very fine case of bottles,

containing the finest and best sorts of cordial waters;

each bottle held about three pints,

curiously tip with silver.

I found also two pots full of the choicest sweetmeats,

and two more which the water had utterly spoiled.

There were likewise several good shirts exceedingly welcome to me,

and about one dozen and a half white linen handkerchiefs and coloured neckcloths,

the former of which was absolutely necessary for wiping my face in a hot day;


in the till,

I found three bags of pieces of eight,

about eleven hundred in all,

in one of which,

decently wrapped up in a piece of paper,

were six doubloons of gold,

and some small bars and wedges of the same metal,

which I believe might weigh near a pound.

In the other chest,

which I guessed to belong to the gunner's mate,

by the mean circumstances which attended it,

I found only some clothes of very little value,

except about two pounds of fine glazed powder,

in three flasks,


as I believe,

for charging their fowling pieces on any occasion;

so that,

on the whole,

I had no great advantage by this voyage.

The money was indeed as mere dirt to me,

useless and unprofitable,

all which I would freely have parted with for two or three pair of English shoes and stockings;

things that for many years I had not worn,

except lately those which I had taken of the feet of those unfortunate men I found drowned in the wreck,

yet not so good as English shoes either for ease or service.

I also found in the seaman's chest about fifty pieces of eight in royals,

but no gold;

so concluded that what I took from the first belonged to an officer,

the latter appearing to have a much inferior person for its owner.


as despicable as the money seemed,

I likewise lugged it to my cave,

laying it up securely,

as I did the rest of my cargo;

and after I had done all this,

I returned back to my boat,

rowing and paddling her along till I came to my old harbour,

where I carefully laid her up,

and so made the best of my way to my castle.

When I arrived there,

every thing seemed safe and quiet: so that now my only business was to repose myself after my wonted manner,

and take care of my domestic affairs.

But though I might have lived very easy,

as wanting nothing absolutely needful,

yet still I was more vigilant than usual upon account of the savages,

never going much abroad;


if I did,

it was to the east part of the island,

where I was well assured that the savages never came,

and where I might not be troubled to carry that heavy load of weapons for my defence,

as I was obliged to do if I went the other way.

Two years did I live in this anxious condition,

in all which time,

contrary to my former resolutions,

my head was filled with nothing but projects and deligns,

how I might escape from this island;

and so much were my wandering thoughts bent upon a rambling disposition that had I had the same boat that I went from Sallee in,

I should have ventured once more to the uncertainty of the raging ocean.

I cannot,


but consider myself as one of the unhappy persons,

who make themselves wretched by there dissatisfaction with the stations which God has placed them in;


not to take a review of my primitive condition,

and my father's excellent advice,

the going contrary to which was,

as I may say,

my original sin,

the following mistakes of the same nature certainly had been the means of my present unhappy station.

What business had I to leave a settled fortune,

and well stocked plantation,

improving and increasing,


by this time,

I might have been worth a hundred thousand moidores,

to turn supercargo to Guinea,

to fetch Negroes,

when time and patience would so much enlarge my stock at home,

as to be able to employ those whose more immediate business it was to fetch them home even to my door?

But as this is commonly the fate of young heads,

so a serious reflection upon the folly of it ordinarily attends the exercise of future years,

when the dear bought experience of time teaches us repentance.

Thus was it with me;

but not withstanding the thoughts of my deliverance ran so strongly in my mind,

that is seemed to check all the dictates of reason and philosophy.

And now to usher in my kind reader with greater pleasure to the remaining part of my relation,

I flatter myself it will not be taken amiss,

to give him an account of my first conceptions of the manner of escaping,

and upon what foundation I laid my foolish schemes.

Having retired to my castle,

after my late voyage to the ship,

my frigate laid up and secured,

as usual,

and my condition the same as before,

except being richer,

though I had as little occasion for riches as the Indians of Peru had for gold,

before the cruel Spaniards came among them: One night in March,

being the rainy season in the four and twentieth year of my solitude,

I lay down to sleep,

very well in health,

without distemper pain,

or uncommon uneasiness,

either of body or mind;

yet notwithstanding,

I could not compose myself to sleep all the night long.

All this tedious while,

it is impossible to express what innumerable thoughts came into my head.

-I traced quite over the whole history of my life in miniature,

from my utmost remembrance of things till I came to this island,

and then proceeded to examine every action and passage that had occurred since I had taken possession of my kingdom.- In my reflections upon the latter,

I was -comparing the happy posture of my affairs from the beginning of my reign,

to this life of anxiety,


and concern,

since I had discovered a print of a foot in the sand;

that while I continued without apprehension,

I was incapable of feeling the dread and terror I now suffered.- How thankful rather ought I to have been for the knowledge of my danger,

since the greatest happiness one can be possessed of is to have sufficient time to provide against it?

How stupendous is the goodness of Providence,

which sets such narrow bounds to the sight and knowledge of human nature,

that while men walk in the midst of so many dangers they are kept serene and calm,

by having the events of things hid from their eyes and knowing nothing of those many dangers that surround them,

till perhaps they are dissipated and vanish away.

When I came more particularly to considerer of -the real danger I had for so many years escaped;

how I had walked about in the greatest security and tranquility,

at a time,


when even nothing but the brow of a hill,

a great tree,

or the common approach of night,

had interposed between me and the destructive hands of the cannibals,

who would devour me with as good an appetite,

as I would a pigeon or curlew;- surely all this,

I say,

could not but make me sincerely thankful to my great Preserver,

whose singular protection I acknowledge with the greatest humility,

and without which I must inevitably have fallen into the cruel hands of those devourers.

Having thus discussed my thoughts in the clearest manner,

according to my weak understanding,

I next proceeded to consider -the wretched nature of those destroying savages,

by seeming,

though with great reverence,- to enquire -why God should give up any of his creatures to such inhumanity,

even to brutality itself,

to devour its own kind?- but as this was rather matter of obstruse speculation,

and as my miserable situation made me think this of mine the most uncomfortable situation in the world,

I then began rather to inquire -what part of the world these wretches lived in;

how far off the coast was from whence they came;

why they ventured over so far from home;

what kind of boats conveyed them hither;

and why I could not order myself and my business so,

that I might be able to attack their country,

as they were to come to my kingdom.

But then- thought I,

-how shall I manage myself when I come thither?

what will become of me if I fall into the hands of the savages?

or how shall I escape from them if they make an attempt upon me?

and supposing I should not fall into their power,

what shall I do for provisions,

or which way shall I bend my course?- These counter thoughts threw me into the greatest horror and confusion imaginable;

but then I still looked upon my present condition to be the most miserable that possibly could be,

and that nothing could be worse,

except death -For- (thought I) -could I but attain the shore of the main,

I might perhaps meet with some reliefs,

or coast it along,

as I did with my boy Xury,

on the African shore,

till I came to some inhabited country,

where I might meet with some relief,

or fall in with some Christian ship that might take me in;

and if I failed,

why then I could but meet with death,

which would put an end to all my miseries.- These thoughts,

I must confess,

were the fruit of a distempered mind and impatient temper made desperate,

as it were,

by long continuance of the troubles and disappointments I had met with in the wreck;

where I hoped to have found some living person to speak to,

by whom I might have known in what place I was,

and of the probable means of my deliverance.


while my thoughts were agitated,

my resignation to the will of heaven was entirely suspended;

to that I had no power to fix my mind to any thing,

but to the project of a voyage to the main land.

And indeed so much was I inflamed upon this account,

that it set my blood into a ferment,

and my pulse beat high,

as though I had been in a fever;

till nature being,

as it were,

fatigued and exhausted with the thoughts of it,

made me submit myself to a silent repose.

In such a situation,

it is very strange,

that I did not dream of what I was so intent upon;


instead of it,

my mind roved on a quite different thing,

altogether foreign.

I dreamed,

that as I was issuing from my castle one morning,

as customary,

when I perceived upon the shore two canoes,

and eleven savages coming to land,

who had brought with them another Indian,

whom they designed to make a sacrifice of,

in order to devour;

but just as they were going to give the fatal blow,

methought the poor designed victim jumped away,

and ran directly into my little thick grove before my fortification,

to abscond from his enemies,

when perceiving that the others did not follow him that way,

I appeared to him;

that he humbly kneeled down before me,

seeming to pray for my assistance;

upon which I showed him my ladder,

made him ascend,

carried him to my cave,

and he became my servant;

and when I had gotten this man,

I said to myself,

-now surely I may have some hopes to attain the main land;

for this fellow will serve me as a pilot,

tell me what to do,

and where I must go for provisions,

what places to shun,

what to venture to,

and what to escape.- But when I awaked,

and found all these inexpressible impressions of joy entirely vanished,

I fell into the greatest dejection of spirit imaginable.

Yet this dream brought me to reflect,

that one sure way of escaping was to get a savage;

that after I had ventured my life to deliver him from the bloody jaws of his devourers,

the natural sense he might have of such a preservation,

might inspire him with a lasting gratitude and most sincere affection.

But then this objection reasonably interposed: -how can I effect this,- thought I,

-without I attack a whole company of them,

and kill them all?

why should I proceed on such a desperate attempt,

which my scruples before had suggested to be unlawful?- and indeed my heart trembled at the thoughts of so much blood,

though it were a means to procure my deliverance.

'Tis true,

I might reasonably enough suppose these men to be real enemies to my life,

men who would devour me,

was it in their power,

so that it was self preservation in the highest degree to free myself,

by attacking them in my own defence,

as lawfully as if they were actually assaulting me: though all these things,

I say,

seemed to me to be of the greatest weight,


as I just said before,

the dreadful thoughts of shedding human blood,

struck such a terror to my soul,

that it was a long time before I could reconcile myself to it.

But how far will the ardency of desire prompt us on?

For notwithstanding the many disputes and perplexities I had with myself,

I at length resolved,

right or wrong,

to get one of these savages into my hands,

cost what it would,

or even though I should lose my life in the attempt.

Inspired with this firm resolution,

I set all my wits at work,

to find out what methods I should take to answer my design: this,


was so difficult a task,

that I could not pitch upon any probable means to execute it: I,


resolved continually to be in a vigilant posture,

to perceive when the savages came on shore and to leave the rest to the event,

let the opportunities offer as they would.

Such was my fixed resolutions;

and accordingly I set myself upon the scout,

as often as I could,

till such time as I was heartily tired of it.

I waited for above a year and a half,

the greatest part of which I went out to the west,

and south-west corner of the island,

almost every day,

to look for canoes,

but none appeared.

This was a very great discouragement;


though I was very much concerned,

the edge of my design was as keen as ever,

and the longer it seemed to be delayed,

the more eager was I for it: in a word,

I never before was so careful to shun the loathing sight of these savages,

as I was now eager to be with them;

and I thought myself sufficiently able to manage one,


or three savages if I had them,

so as to make them my entire slaves,

to do whatsoever I should direct them,

and prevent their being able at any time to do me any mischief.

Many times did I used to please myself with these thoughts,

with long and ardent expectations;

but nothing presenting,

all my deep projected schemes and numerous fancies vanished away,

as though,

while I retained such thoughts,

the decrees of Providence was such,

that no savages were to come near me.

About a year and a half after,

when I was seriously musing of sundry other ways how I should attain my end,

one morning early I was very much surprised by seeing no less than five canoes all on shore together,

on my side the island,

and the savages that belonged to them all landed,

and out of my sight.

Such a number of them disconcerted all my measures;


seeing so many boats,

each of which would contain six,

and sometimes more,

I could not tell what to think of it,

or how to order my measures,

to attack twenty or thirty men single-handed;

upon which,

much dispirited and perplexed,

I lay still in my castle;



I put in a proper posture for an attack: and,

having formerly provided all that was necessary,

was soon ready to enter upon an engagement,

should they attempt.

Having waited for some time,

my impatient temper would let me bear it no longer;

I set my guns at the foot of my ladder,


as usual,

ascended up to the top of the hill at two stages,



in such a manner,

that my head did not appear above the hill,

so that they could easily perceive me;

and here,

by the assistance of my perspective glass,

I observed no less than thirty in number around a fire,

feasting upon what meat they had dressed: how they cooked it,

or what it was,

I could not then perfectly tell;

but they were all dancing and capering about the flames,

using many frightful and barbarous gestures.

But while,

with a curious eye,

I was beholding these wretches,

my spirits sunk within me,

when I perceived them drag two miserable creatures from the boats,

to act afresh the dreadful tragedy,

as I supposed they had done before.

It was not long before one of them fell upon the ground,

knocked down,

as I suppose,

with a club or wooden sword,

for that was their manner;

while two or three others went immediately to work,

cutting him open for their cookery,

and then fell to devour him as they had done the former,

while the last unhappy captive was left by himself,

till such time as they were ready for him.

The poor creature looked round him with a wishful eye,

trembling at the thoughts of death;


seeing himself a little at liberty,


that very moment,

as it were,

inspired him with hopes of life: He started away from them,

and ran,

with incredible swiftness along the sands,

directly to that part of the coast where my ancient and venerable castle stood.

You may well imagine,

I was dreadfully affrighted upon this occasion,


as I thought,

they pursued him in a whole body,

all running towards my palace.

And now,


I expected that part of my dream was going to be fulfilled,

and that he would certainly fly to my grove for protection;


for the rest of my dream,

I could depend nothing on it;

that the savages would pursue him thither,

and find him there.

However my spirits,

beginning to recover,

I still kept upon my guard;

and I now plainly perceived,

there were but three men out of the number that pursued him.

I was infinitely pleased with what swiftness the poor creature ran from his pursuers,

gaining so much ground upon them,

that I plainly perceived,

could he thus hold out for half an hour,

there was not the least doubt but he would save his life from the power of his enemies.

Between them and my castle there was a creek,

that very same which I sailed into with all my effects from the wreck of the ship on the steep banks of which I very much feared the poor victim would be taken,

if he could not swim for his escape: but soon was I out of pain for him,

when I perceived he made nothing of it,

though at full tide,

but with an intrepid courage,

spurred on by the sense of danger,

he plunged into the flood,

swimming over in about thirty strokes,

and then landing,

ran with the same incredible strength and swiftness as before.

When the three pursuers came to the creek,

one of them,

who I perceived could not swim,

happily for his part,

returned to his company,

while the others,

with equal courage,

but much less swiftness attained the other side,

as though they were resolved never to give over the pursuit.

And now or or never I thought was the time for me to procure me a servant,


or assistant;

and that I was decreed by Providence to be the instrument to save this poor creature's life.

I immediately descended my two ladders with the greatest expedition: I took up my two guns,


I said before,

were at the bottom of them,

and getting up again with the same haste towards the hill,

I made nearer the sea.

In a word,

taking a short cut down the hill,

I interposed between the pursuers and pursued,

hallooing aloud to the latter,


venturing to look back,


no doubt,

as much terrified at me as I at them.

I beckoned to him with my hand,

to return back,

in the mean time advancing towards the pursuers,

and rushing on the foremost,

I knocked him down with the stock of my piece,

and laid him flat on the ground.

I was very unwilling to fire lest the rest should hear,

though at a distance,

I question whether they could or no;

and being out of sight of the smoke,

they could not easily have known what to make of it.

The other savage seeing his fellow fall,

stopped as if he had been amazed;

when advancing towards him,

I could perceive him take his bow from his back,


fixing and arrow to it,

was preparing to shoot at me,


without dispute,

might have lodged the arrow in my breast;


in this absolutely necessary case of self preservation,

I immediately fired at him,

and shot him dead,

just as his hand was going to draw the fatal string.

All this while,

the savage who had fled before stood still,

and had the satisfaction to see his enemies killed,

as he thought,

who designed to take away his life;

so affrighted was he with the fire and noise of my piece,

-that he stood as it were like Lot's wife,

fixed and immoveable,

without either sense or motion-.

This obliged me to halloo to him again,

making the plainest signs I could to him to draw nearer.

I perceived he understood those tokens by his approaching to me a little way,


as is afraid I should kill him too,

he stopped again.

Several times did he advance,

as often stop in this manner,

till coming more,

to my view,

I perceived him trembling,

as if he was to undergo the same fate.

Upon which I looked upon him with a smiling countenance,

and still beckoning to him,

at length he came close to me and kneeled down,

kissed my hand,

laid his head upon it,

and taking me by the foot,

placed it upon his head;

and this,

as I understood afterwards,

was in token of swearing to be my slave for ever.

I took him up,


making much of him,

encouraged him in the best manner I could.

But my work was not yet finished;

for I perceived the savage whom I knocked down,

was not killed,

but stunned with the blow,

and began to come to himself,

Upon which I pointed to my new servant,

and shewed him that his enemy was not yet expired,

he spoke some words to me,

but which I could not understand;

yet being the first sound of a man's voice I had heard for above twenty-five years,

they were very pleasing to me.

But there was no time for reflection now,

the wounded savage recovering himself so far as to sit upon the ground,

which made my poor prisoner as much afraid as before;

to put him out of which fear,

I presented my other gun at the man,

with an intent to shoot him;

but my savage,

for so I must now call him,

prevented my firing,

by making a motion to me,

to lend him my sword,

which hung naked in my belt by my side.

No sooner did I grant his request,

but away he runs to his enemy,

and at one blow cut off his head as dextrously as the most accomplished executioner in Germany could have done;


it seems,

these creatures make use of wooden swords made of hard wood which will bear edge enough to cut off heads and arms at one blow.

When this valorous exploit was done,

he comes to me laughing,

as a token of triumph,

delivered me my sword again,

with abundance of suprising gestures,

laying it,

along with the bleeding and ghastly head of the Indian,

at my feet.

[Illustration: ROBINSON CRUSOE rescuing FRIDAY from his pursuers.]

The greatest astonishment that my new servant conceived was the manner of killing the savage at such a distance,

without a bow and arrow;

and such was his longing desire to know it,

that he first pointed to the dead carcase,

and then made signs to me to grant him leave to go up to him.

Upon which I bid him go,


as well as I could,

made him sensible I granted his request.

But when he came there,

how wonderfully was he struck with amazement!


he turned him on one side,

then on another,

wondering he could perceive no quantity of blood,

he bleeding inwardly;

and after sufficiently admiring the wound the bullet had made in his breast,

he took up his bow and arrows,

and came back again;

upon which I turned to go away,

making signs to him to follow,

left the rest missing their companions,

might come in pursuit of them,

and this I found he understood very well,

by his making me understand that his design was to bury them,

that they might not be seen if it happened;

and which by signs again I made him sensible I very much approved of.

Immediately he fell to work,

and never was a grave-digger more dextrous in the world than he was;

for in an instant,

as I might say,

he scraped a large hole in the sand with his hands,

sufficient to bury the first in;

there he dragged him;

and without any ceremony he covered him over;

in like manner he saved the other;

so that I am sure no undertaker could be more expert in his business,

for all this was done in less than a quarter of an hour.

I then called him away,

and instead of carrying him directly to my castle at first,

I conveyed him to my cave on the farther part of the island;

and so my dream was now fulfilled in that particular,

that my grove should prove an asylum or sanctuary to him.

Weary and faint,

hungry and thirsty,

undoubtedly must this poor creature be,

supported chiefly by the vivacity of spirit,


uncommon transports of joy that his deliverance occasioned.

Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to eat,

and water to drink,

on which he fed very cheerfully,

to his exceeding refreshment.

I then made him a convenient bed with a parcel of rice straw,

and a blanket upon it,

(a bed which I used myself sometimes) and then pointing to it,

made signs for him to lie down to sleep,

upon which the poor creature went to take a welcome repose.

Indeed he was a very comely,


young fellow,

extremely well made,

with straight long limbs,

not two large,

but tall and well shaped,


as near as I could reckon,

about twenty-six years of age.

His countenance had nothing in it fierce or surly,

but rather a sort of majesty in his face;

and yet,

especially when he smiled,

he had all the sweetness and softness of an European.

His hair was not curled like wool,

as many of the blacks are,

but long and black,

with the most beautiful,

yet careless tresses spreading over his shoulders.

He had a very high and large forehead,

with a great vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes.

His skin was not so tawney,

as the Virginians,


or other Americans;

but rather of a bright dun,

olive colour,

that had something agreeable in it,

though not very easy to give a description of.

His face was round and plump,

with a small nose,

very different from the flatness of the negroes,

a pretty small mouth,

thin lips,

fine teeth,

very well set,

and white as the driven snow.

In a word,

such handsome features,

and exact symmetry in every part,

made me consider that I had saved the life of an Indian prince,

no less graceful and accomplished than the great -Oroonoko- whose memorable behavior and unhappy contingencies of life have charmed the world,

both to admiration of his person,

and compassion to his sufferings.

But let him be either prince or peasant,

all my happiness centered in this,

that I had now got a good servant or companion,

to whom,

as he deserved,

I was resolved to prove a kind master and a lasting friend.

He had not,

I think,

slept above an hour when he awakened again,

and while I was milking my goats hard by,

out he runs from the cave towards me in my inclosure,

and laying himself down on the ground,

in the lowest prostration,

made all the antic gestures imaginable,

to express his thankfulness to me for being his deliverer.

I confess though the manner of his behaviour seemed to be ludicrous enough to occasion,


yet I was very much moved at his affection,

so that my heart melted within me,

fearing he might die away in excess of joy,

like reprieved malefactors,

especially as I was incapable either to let him blood,

or administer physic.

It were to be wished,

that Christians would take example by this Heathen,

to have received by the kind mediation and powerful interposition of their benefactors and deliverers;

and it would be likewise happy for mankind,

were there no occasion to blame many,


instead of thankfully acknowledging favours and benefits,

rather abuse and condemn those who have been the instruments to save them from destruction.


leaving these just reflections,

I return to the object that occasioned them;

for my man,

to conclude the last ceremony of obedience,

laid down his head again on the ground,

close to my foot,

and set my other foot upon is head,

as he had done before,

making all the signs of subjection,


and submission imaginable,

and let me understand he would serve me as long as his life endured.

As I understood him in many things,

I made him sensible I was very well pleased with him;


in a little time,

I began to speak to him,

and learn him to talk to me again.

In the first place,

I made him understand his name was to be -Friday-,

because it was upon that day I saved his life;

then I taught him to say -Master-,

which I made him sensible was to be my name.

I likewise taught him to say -Yes- and -No-,

and to know what they meant.

I gave him some milk in an earthen pot,

making him view me while I drank it before him,

and soaked my bread in it;

I gave him a cake of bread,

and caused him to soak it likewise,

to which he readily consented,

making signs of the greatest satisfaction imaginable.

All that night did I keep him there;

but no sooner did the morning light appear,

when I ordered him to arise,

and come along with me,

with certain tokens that I would give him some clothes like mine,

at which he seemed very glad,

being stark naked,

without the least covering whatever.

As we passed by the place where the two men had been interred,

my man pointed directly to their graves,

showing me the marks that he had made to find them again,

giving me to understand,

by signs,

that we should dig them up,

and devour them.

At this I appeared extremely displeased,

expressed my utmost abhorrence,

as if I would vomit at the apprehensions of it,

beckoning with my hand to come away,

which he did with the greatest reverence and submission.

After this I conducted him to the top of the hill,

to view if the rest of the savages were yet remaining there;

but when I looked through my perspective glass,

I could see no appearance of them,

nor of their canoes;

so that it was evident they never minded their deceased companions whom we had slain: which if they had,

they would surely have searched for,

or left one boat behind for them to follow,

after they returned from their pursuit.


and a desire of satisfaction,

animating me with courage to see this scene of barbarity,

I took my man Friday with me,

putting a sword into his hand,

with the bow and arrows at his back,

which I perceived he could use very dexterously,

causing him to carry one gun for me,

and I two for myself;

and thus equipped against all attacks,

away we marched directly to the place of their bloody entertainment.

But when I came there,

I was struck with the utmost horror at so dreadful a spectacle,

whilst Friday was no way concerned about it,

being no doubt in his turn one of these devourers.

Here lay several human bones,

there several pieces of mangled flesh,

half eaten,


and scorched,

whilst streams of blood ran promiscuously as waters from a fountain.

As I was musing on this dreadful sight,

Friday took all the pains he could,

by particular signs,

to make me understand,

that they had brought over four prisoners to feast upon,

three of whom they had eaten up,

and that he was the fourth,

pointing to himself;

that there having been a bloody battle between them and his great king,

in the just defence of whom he was taken prisoner,

with many others;

all of these were carried off to different places to be devoured by their conquerors;

and that it was his misfortune to be brought hither by these wretches for the same purpose.

After I was made sensible of these things,

I caused Friday to gather those horrid remains,

and lay them together upon a heap,

which I ordered to be set on fire,

and burnt them to ashes: My man,


still retained the nature of a cannibal,

having a hankering stomach after some of the flesh;

but such an extreme abhorrence did I express at the least appearance of it,

that he durst not but conceal it;

for I made him very sensible,

that if he offered any such thing,

I would certainly shoot him.

This being done,

I carried my man with me to my castle,

and gave him a pair of linen drawers,

which I had taken out of the poor gunner's chest before mentioned;

and which,

with a little alteration,

fitted him very well;

in the next place I made him a jerkin of goat's skin,

such as my skill was able to manage,

and indeed I thought myself then a tolerable good tailor.

I gave him also a cap which I made of a hare's skin,

very convenient and fashionable.

Thus being clothed tolerably well,

my man was no less proud of his habit,

than I was at seeing him in it.

Indeed he went very aukwardly at first,

the drawers being too heavy on his thighs not used to bear any weight,

and the sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms;

but by a little easing where he complained they hurt him,

and by using himself to them,

at length he took to them very well.

My next concern was,

where I should lodge him;

and that I might do well by him,

and yet be perfectly easy myself,

I erected a tent for him in the vacant place between my two fortifications,

in the inside of the last,

and the outside of the first;


as there was an entrance or door into my cave,

I made a formal framed door-case,

and a door to open on the inside;

I barred it up in the night time,

taking in my ladders too,

so that,

was my man to prove treacherous,

there could be no way to come at me in the inside of my innermost wall,

without making so much noise in getting over,

that it must needs waken me;

for my first wall had now a complete roof over it of long poles,

spreading over my tent,

and leaning up to the side of the mountain,

which was again laid cross with smaller sticks instead of laths,

and thatched over a great thickness with the rice straw,

which was as strong as reeds;

and at the hole of the place,

left on purpose to go in or out by the ladder,

had placed a kind of trap-door,


if it had been attempted on the outside,

would not have opened at all,

but have fallen down,

and made a great noise;

and as to my weapons,

every night I took them all to my bed side.

But there was no occasion for this precaution;

for surely never master had a more sincere,


and loving servant,

than Friday proved to me.

Without passion,


or design,

perfectly obliging and engaging,

his affections were as much tied to me,

as those of a child to its parents;

& I might venture to say,

he would have sacrificed his life for the saving mine,

upon any occasion whatsoever.

And indeed the many testimonies he gave me of this,

sufficiently convinced me that I had no occasion to use these precautions.

And here I could not but reflect with great wonder,

that however it hath pleased the Almighty in his providence,

and in the government of the creation,

to take from so great a part of the world of his creatures,

the noblest uses to which their faculties,

and the powers of their souls are adapted;

yet that he has bestowed upon them the same reason,


sentiments of kindness and obligation,

passions of resentment,



and all the capacities of doing and receiving good that he has given us;

and that when he is graciously pleased to offer them occasions of exerting these,

they are as ready,


more ready,

to apply them to the proper uses for which they were bestowed,

than we often are.

These thoughts would make me melancholy,

especially when I considered how mean a use we make of all these,

even though we have these powers enlightened by the Holy Spirit of God,

and by the knowledge of this world,

as an addition to our understanding;

and why it has pleased the heavenly Wisdom to conceal the life saving knowledge from so many millions of souls who would certainly make a much better use of it than generally mankind do at this time.

These reflections would sometimes lead me so far,

as to invade the sovereignty of Providence,


as it were,

arraign the justice of such an arbitrary disposition of things,

that should obscure that light from some,

and reveal it to others,

and yet expect a like duty from all.

But I closed it up,

checking my thoughts with this conclusion;


That we were ignorant of that right and law by which those should be condemned;

but as the Almighty was necessarily,

and by the nature of his essence,

infinitely just and holy;

so it could not be otherwise,

but that if these creatures were all destined to absence from himself,

it was on account of sinning against that light,


as the Scripture says,

-was a law to themselves- and by such rules as their consciences would acknowledge to be just,

though the first foundation was not discovered to us.



That still as we were the clay in the hand of the potter,

no vessel could thus say to him,

-Why hast thou fashioned me after this manner-?

I had not been above two or three days returned to my castle,

but my chief design was,

how I should bring Friday off from this horrid way of feeding;

and to take from him that inhuman relish he by nature had been accustomed to,

I thought it my duty to let him taste other flesh,

which might the rather tempt him to the same abhorrence I so often expressed against their accursed way of living.

Upon which,

one morning I took him out with me,

with an intention to kill a kid out of the flock,

and bring it home and dress it.

As I was going,

I perceived a she-goat lying down in the shade,

and two young kids sitting by her.

Immediately I catched hold of my man Friday,

and bidding him stand still,

and not stir,

I presented my piece,

and shot one of the kids.

My poor servant,

who had at a distance perceived me kill his adversary,

and yet did not know by what means,

or how it was done,

stood trembling and surprised,

and looked so amazed,

that I thought he would have sunk into the earth.

He did not see the kid I aimed at,

or behold I had killed it,

but ripped up his waistcoat to see if he was not wounded,

thinking my resolution was to kill him;

for coming to me,

he fell on his knees,

earnestly pronouncing many things which I did not understand the meaning of;

which at length I perceived was,

that I would not take away his life.

Indeed I was much concerned to see him in that condition,

where nature is upon the severest trial,

when the immediate hand of death is ready to put for ever a period to this mortal life;

and indeed so much compassion had I to this creature,

that it was with difficulty I restrained from tears.



as another sort of countenance was necessary,

and to convince him that I would do no harm,

I took him smiling by the hand,

then laughed at him,

and pointing to the kid which I had slain,

made signs to him to fetch it,

which accordingly he did.

No less curious was he in viewing how the creature was killed,

than he had been before in beholding the Indian;


while he was admiring at,

I charged my gun again,

and presently perceived a great fowl like a hawk,

perching upon a tree within shot;

and therefore,

to let Friday understand what I was going to do,

I called him to me again,

pointing at the fowl,

which I found to be a parrot.

I made him understand that I would shoot and kill that bird;

accordingly I fired,

and bade him look,

when immediately he saw the parrot fall down.

Again he stood like one amazed,

notwithstanding all I had said to him: and the more confounded he was,

because he did not perceive me put any thing into my gun.

Undoubtedly a thing so utterly strange,

carrying death along with it,

far or near,

either to man or beast,

must certainly create the greatest astonishment to one who never had heard such a thing in his whole life;

and really his amazement continued so long,

that had I allowed it,

he would have prostrated himself before me and my gun,

with the greatest worship and adoration.

As for the gun in particular,

he would not so much as touch it for several days after,

but would come & communicate his thoughts to it,

& talk to it,

as if the senseless piece had understood and answered him;

all this I could perceive him do,

when he thought my back was turned,

the chief intent of which was,

to desire it not to kill him,

as I afterwards came to understand.

I never strove to prevent his admiration,

nor hinder him from those comical gestures he used on such occasions;

but when his astonishment was a little over,

I make tokens to him to run and fetch the parrot that I had shot;

which accordingly he did,

staying some time longer than usual,

by reason the bird not being quite dead,

had fluttered some way further from the place where she fell.

In the mean time,

as he was looking for her,

I took the advantage of charging my gun again,

that so I might be ready for any other mark that offered;

but nothing more occurred at that time.

So I brought home the kid,

and the same evening took off the skin and divided the carcase as well as I could.

Part of the flesh I stewed and boiled in a pot I had for this purpose.

And then spreading my table,

I sat down,

giving my man some of it to eat,

who was wonderfully pleased and seemed to like it very well: but what was the most surprising to him was to see me eat salt with it: upon which he made me understand,

that the salt was very bad for me;

when putting a little into his mouth,

he seemed to nauseate it in such a manner as to spit and sputter at it,

and then washed his mouth with fresh water: but to shew him how contrary his opinion was to mine,

I put some meat into my mouth without salt and feigned to spit and sputter as much for the want of it,

as he had done at it;

yet all this proved of no signification to Friday;

and it was a long while before he could endure salt in his meat or broth,

and even then but a small quantity.

Thus having fed him sufficiently with boiled meat and broth at that time,

the next day I was resolved to feast him with a roasted piece of the kid.

And having no spit to fasten it,

nor jack to turn it,

I made use of that common artifice which many of the common people of England have,

that is to let two poles upon each side of the fire,

and one cross on top,

hanging the meat thereon with a string,

and so turning round continually,

roast it,

in the same manner as we read bloody tyrants of old cruelly roasted the holy martyrs.

This practice caused great admiration in my man Friday,

being quite another way than that to which the savages were accustomed.

But when he came to taste the sweetness and tenderness of the flesh,

he expressed his entire satisfaction above a thousand different ways.

And as I could not but understand his meaning,

you may be sure I was as wonderfully pleased,

especially when he made it also very plain to me,

that he would never,

while he lived eat man's flesh more.

It was now high time I should set my servant to work;

so next day I set him to beat out some corn,

and sat it in the same manner as I had done before.

And really the fellow was very quick and handy in the execution of any thing I ordered him to go about.

I made him understand that it was to make bread for us to eat,

and afterwards let him see me make it.

In short,

he did every thing as I ordered him,

and in a little time as well as I could perform it myself.

But now considering that I had two mouths to feed instead of one,

it was necessary that I must provide more ground for my harvest,

and plant a larger quantity of corn than I commonly used to do;

upon which I marked out a larger piece of land,

fencing it in,

in the same manner as I had done before;

in the execution of which I must give Friday this good word;

that no man could work,

more hardy or with better will than he did: and when I made him sensible that it was for bread to serve him as well as me,

he then very passionately made me understand that he thought I had much more labour on his account,

than I had for myself;

and that no pains or diligence should be wanting in him,

if I would but direct him in those works wherein he might proceed.

I must certainly own,

that this was the most pleasant year I ever had on the island;

for after some time Friday began to talk pretty well,

and understood the names of those things which I was wont to call for,

and the places where I used to send him.

So that my long silent tongue,

which had been useless so many years,

except in an exclamatory manner,

either for deliverance or blessings,

now began to be occupied in teaching,

and talking to my man Friday for indeed I had such a singular satisfaction in the fellow himself,

so innocent did his simple and unfeigned honesty appear more and more to me every day,

that I really began entirely to love him;

and for his part,

I believe there was no love lost,

and that his nature had been more charmed by his exceeding kindness,

and his affections more placed upon me,

than any other object whatsoever among his own countrymen.

I once had a great mind to try if he had any hankering inclination to his own country again;

and by this time,

having learned the English so well;

that he could give me tolerable answer to any question which I demanded.

I asked him whether that nation to which he belonged,

ever conquered in battle?

This question made Friday to smile,

and to which he answered,



we always fight the better;- as much as to say,

they always got the better in fight.

Upon which we proceeded on the following discourse: -You say-,

said I,

-that you always fight the better;




how came you to be taken prisoner-?


-But for all that my nation beat much-.


-How say you,


if your nation beat them,

how came you to be taken-?


-They more many mans than my nation in the place where me was;

they take one,



and me: my nation much over beat them in the yonder place where me no was,

there my nation mans beat one,



great tousand-.


-Then why did not your men recover you from the hands of your enemies?-


-They run one,


or three,

and me: they make all go in the canoe;

my nation have no canoe that time- --


-'Tis very well,


but what does your nation do with the prisoners they take?

Do they carry them away and eat them as these have done-?




my nation eat mans too,

eat up all-.


-To what place do they carry them to be devoured-?


-Go to other nations where they think-.


-Do they bring them hither-?



come over hither,

came over other place-.


-And have you been with them here,




me been here-,

(pointing to the north-west of the island,

being the side where they used to land.)